The Emperor Receives a Battle-Standard from a Bishop,
Milan, Northern Italy, between 998 and 1018


Miniature of the giving of a battle-standard to an armoured emperor by a bishop (Ambrose?), below is the end of a prayer for the emperor, and facing is a prayer entitled 'For the blessing of a military standard' (signum bellicum) that refers to the imperial banner prepared for use in war (hoc vexillum quod bellico usui preparatum est).
Probably written for Arnulph II, archbishop of Milan (998-1018): Arnulph in the litany is in capitals, and there is a prayer to Victor (Maurus) (f. 117). Perhaps written and painted by Nivardus, a Lombard.
British Library Egerton 3763 f. 121v. From Milan, Northern Italy.



Illustrations of Italian Costume & Soldiers
11th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers