The Leiden I Maccabees manuscript / Codex Per F 17
Folio 22rCavalry battle at a river crossing
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Book of Maccabees I, Saint Gall, Switzerland, second half of 9th–early 10th century, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Leiden, Codex Perizoni
This codex contains the first book of Maccabees and the fourth book of the Epitoma Rei Militaris by Vegetius.
It was probably started in the Abbey of Saint Gall and finished at the Abbey of Reichenau.
It is famous for its 28 illuminated pages, thought to be early depictions of a historical battle: the incursions of the Magyars in southern Germany.
Referenced on p.29, The Age of Charlemagne (Men-at-Arms 150) by D.Nicolle, A.McBride
Book of Maccabees from St. Gall, c. 924 AD. These warriors are typical of the late Carolingian and early Ottonian eras. (Cod. Periz. F.17, f.22r, University Lib., Leiden)
Referenced on p.41, Carolingian Cavalryman AD 768-986 by D. Nicolle
The attacking side in this illustration from St Gall, made around 924, use stirrups but otherwise both armies are equipped in the same manner. The two tents have rigid ridge poles. (Book of Maccabees, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ms. Periz. F.17, Leiden, Netherlands)
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