You can support these web-sites by donating:|
or by making your Amazon purchases after clicking a link below:
Munsell's Historical Series. No. 16
CAMPAIGN OF 1777.|
BY AN OFFICER IN THE NORTHERN ARMY,
UNDER THE COMMAND OF HIS EXCELLENCY
LIEUT.-GEN. JOHN BURGOYNE.
TO THEIR CAPTURE AT
AY 6, 1777. Lieut. General Burgoyne made Quebec in the Apollo frigate, with orders from Government, to take the command of the army, which, though it pleased the troops in general, yet caused some surprise at General Carlton's being set aside; and which could be accounted for only in the following manner; first his not being able as Governor to leave the province, as were he to effect a junction with General Howe, who was appointed Commander in chief of all America, and which was thought very probable, General Carlton, as the oldest officer, must have taken the command, from whence it was judged better not to let them clash; some gave another reason, which, I think, must appear an unjust one, namely, his not attempting to reduce Ticonderoga the preceding season; and I am positive every officer in the army, if called upon, would acquit him of acting imprudently in retireing from that place to winter in Canada, the season being so very severe and far 188 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. advanced.140 The troops were assembled at St Johns ready to cross over Lake Champlain. The 31st, 29th and 34th regiments were left to garrison Canada. The troops were all in the greatest health and much improved since their sailing from Great Britain; as many were then recruits, they were also better inured to the climate than the preceding season, and General Burgoyne seemed extremely pleased, as indeed he must have been, with the good appearance of the army on taking the field; and I make no doubt, but the expectations of the people at home were sanguine respecting his opperations necessary for the junction with the Southern army, under the command of General Howe. On his takeing the command, he gave out the following manifesto or proclamation, intending it for the benefit of the Americans, where his army was intended to act, and as he afterwards says in the House of Commons, rather to hold out terrors, than put them into execution. Many copies were soon dispersed through the Provinces of the enemy. How it was attended to will be seen in the following pages. ---------------- 140 The subject of placing Burgoyne in command of the campaign about to be inaugurated, was widely discussed at home as well as in the army, and Burgoyne was openly accused by his adversaries of having supplanted a brother officer by the use of means not honorable to a soldier. This charge he met and refuted in Parliament. On the other hand, many saw in the action of the government a disapproval of Carleton's management of the previous campaign. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 189 BY JOHN BURGOYNE, ESQ Lieutenant General of his Majesties Armies in America, Colo of the Queen's regiment of Light Dragoons, Governor of Fort William in North Britain, One of the representatives of the Commons of Great Britain in Parliament and Commanding an army and fleet employed in an expedition from Canada &c &c. &c. The forces intrusted to my command are designed to act in concert and upon a common principle with the numerous armies and fleets which already display in every quarter of America the Power, the Justice (and when properly sought) the Mercy of the King. The cause, in which the British arms are exerted, applies to the most affecting interests of the human heart, and the military servants of the crown, at first called forth for the sole purpose of Restoring the rights of the Constitution, now Combine with love of their Country, and duty to their Sovereign, the other extensive incitements which spring from a true sense of the general privileges of mankind. To the eyes and ears of the temperate part of the public, and to the breasts of the suffering thousands in the Provinces, be the melancholy appeal, whether the present unnatural Rebellion has not been made a foundation for the completest system of tyranny that ever God, in his displeasure suffered for a time to be exercised over a froward and stubborn generation. Arbitrary Imprisonment, confiscation of property. Persecution 190 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. and torture unprecedented in the Inquisition of the Romish Church are amongst the palpable enormities that verefy the affirmative. These are inflicted by Assemblys and Committees, who dare to profess themselves friends to Liberty, upon the most quiet subjects, without distinction of age or sex, for the sole crime, often for the sole suspicion, of having adhered in principle to the Government under which they were born, and, to which, by every tie Divine & Human, they owe allegiance. To consummate these shocking proceedings, the profanation of religion is added to the most profligate prostitution of common reason; the consciences of men are set at naught, and multitudes are compelled, not only to bear arms, but also to swear subjection to an usurpation they abhor. Animated by these considerations, at the head of troops in full power of health, discipline and valour, determined to strike when necessary, and anxious to spare when possible. I by these presents, invite and exhort all persons, in all places where the progress of this army may point, (and by the blessing of God I will extend it far) to mentain such a conduct as may justify in protecting Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 191 upon the first intelligence of their associating, I will find means to assist their undertakings. The Domestic, the industrious, the infirm and even the timid inhabitants I am desirous to protect, provided they remain quietly in their houses; that they do not suffer their cattle to be removed, nor their corn or forage to be secreted or destroyed; that they do not break up their bridges or roads, nor by any other acts, directly or indirectly, endeavor to obstruct the operations of the Kings troops, or supply or subsist those of the enemy, every species of provision brought to my camp will be paid for at an equitable rate and in solid coin. The consciousness of Christianity, my Royal Master's clemency, and the honour of soldier- ship, I have dwelt upon in this invitation, and wished for more persuasive terms to give it impression; and let not people be led to disregard it by considering their distance from the immediate situation of my camp. I have but to give stretch to the Indian forces under my direction, (and they amount to thousands) to overtake the hardened enemies of Great Britain and America I consider them the same where ever they may lurk. If notwithstanding these endeavours, and sincere inclinations to effect them, the phrensy of hostility should remain, I trust I shall stand acquitted in the eyes of God and men in denouncing and executing the vengeance of the State against the wilful outcasts. The messengers of Justice and wrath await them in the field, and Devastation, famine and every concomitant horror that a reluctant but indis- 192 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. pensible prosecution of military duty must occasion, will bar the way to their return.141 GENERAL ORDERS Disposition of the army under the Command of Lieut Genl Burgoyne. ---------------- 141 Many humorous replies were made to this high-sounding proclamation of Burgoyne, one of which Digby himself gives us. Another, ascribed to William Livingston, Governor of New Jersey, was especially witty, and purported to be an agreement for exchange of prisoners, supposing the commander-in-chief himself fell into the hands of the Americans. It was arranged in articles, in which his various titles were appropriately numbered, and a value set upon each for purposes of exchange. Thus it was proposed to give, as follows: " 1. For John Burgoyne Esquire, some worthy justice of the peace. " 2. For J. B. lieut. gen. of his maj's armies in Am. 2 major generals. " 3. For J. B. Col. queen's reg. lt. dragoons, at least 3 Continental colonels. " 4. For J. B. gov. of fort Wm. in N. Britain, I Gov. because his multititulary excellency is gov. of a fort & 2 as that f. is in North Britain, " 5. For J. B. one of the representatives of Great Britain, the first member of Congress who may fall into the enemy's hands. " 6. For J. B. com. of a fleet employed on an expedition to Canada, the admiral of our navy. " 7. For J. B. com. of an army employed in an expedition from Canada, I commander in chief in any of our departments. " 8. For J. B. &c. &c. &c. which he humorously discusses, 3 privates." Washington issued a counter-proclamation, which was in strong contrast to Burgoyne's, being characterized by simple, but lofty and dignified sentiments. It closed with these noble words : "Harassed as we are by unrelenting persecution, obliged by every tie to repel violence by force, urged by self-preservation to exert the strength which Providence has given us to defend our natural rights against the aggressor, we appeal to the hearts of all mankind for the justice of our cause; its event we leave to Him, who speaks the fate of nations, its humble confidence that as his omniscient eye taketh note even of the sparrow that falleth to the ground, so he will not withdraw his countenance from a people who humbly array themselves under his banner in defense of the noblest principles with which he has adorned humanity." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 193 Brigadier General Frazier will be joined by the Canadian companies of Moning and Boucherville,142 Captn Frazier's detachment and a body of Savages. The German Grenadiers, Chassieures, Light Infantry under the command of Lieut Colo Bremen143 form a corps of Reserve, and will never encamp in the line. The regiment of Riedesel's Dragoons is also out of the Line, and for the present, will be employed to cover head quarters. The provincial corps of Peters144 ---------------- 142 Rιnι Antoine de Boucherville was born at Cataracouy, the Indian name of a settlement which occupied the site of the present busy town of Kingston, on February 12, 1735. He was an active partisan in the war, and subsequently attained prominence in political affairs, becoming a member of the Canadian Legislative Council, and occupying other official positions. He died at Boucherville, Canada, September 1, 1812. Colonel Rogers questions the identity of the officer mentioned in this journal with the Seigneur Rιnι Antoine, above noted. His reasons may be found in Appendix number twelve to Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books. 143 Heinrich Christoph Breymann was lieutenant-colonel of the grenadiers loaned by the Duke of Brunswick to George the Third. He was a brave and efficient officer, but was severely criticised for tardiness in marching to the support of Baum, at Bennington. A report was current in Burgoyne's army, says Hadden, "that an old picque between Brymen & Baume might occasion his tardiness, as he was heard to say, 'we will let them get warm before we reach 144 John Peters was a Connecticut yankee, and was born at Hebron in 1740. He was of sound rebel stock. His father, John, was a staunch patriot, and his cousin, John S., was governor of Connecticut. The historian of Connecticut, the Rev. Samuel, was his uncle. He was a graduate of Yale College in the class of 1759, and studied the profession, of 194 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. and Jessop145 are also out of the line. The recruits of the 33rd regiment, and the other regiments under ---------------- them' when he heard the firing." Be this as it may, he fought well after reaching the scene of action, was himself wounded, and his command suffered severe loss. He was subsequently killed in the battle of Bemus' Heights, October 7, 1777. Vide Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 36, 136. ---------------- the law, removing in 1766 to Vermont, where he became a prosperous citizen, holding important civil offices until the opening of the war. He was a member of the provincial congress, but was hostile to independence, and allied himself to the Tories in the war, and accompanied General Carleton on the campaign of '76 as a volunteer. He went on the raid to Bennington with Baum, as lieutenant-colonel of the Queen's Loyal Rangers, expecting to add to his command from the disaffected after the expected defeat of his fellow-countrymen, but in the battle lost a large portion of his men. He fought with Burgoyne through the campaign of '77, and on the eve of that general's surrender of his army he escaped to Canada. Here he seems to have been neglected, and the promises made to him broken. His property was, of course, confiscated, and he was unable on account of the act of attainder, to return to his old home. Broken in health, and unable even to get pay for his services, he finally went to England to urge his claims upon the government, leaving his family, consisting of a wife and eight children, at Cape Breton, but a deaf ear was turned toward him, and for three years he hung about the back doors of royalty begging in vain, when death came to his relief in 1788. Vide History of New York During the Revolutionary War (Jones), vol. I, pp. 686- 692; History of Vermont (Hall), p. 769; Loyalists of the American Revolution (Sabine), Boston, 1864, vol. 2, p. 183. ---------------- 145 Ebenezer and Edward Jessup were brothers, born in the Province of Connecticut, who, several years before the commencement of the Revolution, removed to northern New York where they had acquired extensive possessions, and erected houses and mills. They were both justices of Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 195 the command of Lieut Nutt146 are, for the present, to serve on board the Fleet. ---------------- the peace for the Province of New York, and engaged in business enterprises of importance, but when the war began, thought best to cast in their lot with the British invaders of their country. Edward Jessup had already had military experience, having been a captain of Provincials in 1759. Both brothers, it would seem, were considered competent to command, hence we find them both prominent among the commanders of Provincial loyalists. Burgoyne, however, did not regard these soldiers very favorably, as they did not stand by him with that constancy which he demanded of them, but we must remember that he had been bred in the regular service, and consequently would, of necessity, be prone to regard Provincial irregulars unfavorably. The brothers Jessup never returned to the United States and their property was confiscated. A Jessup genealogy by Prof. Henry G. Jessup is in press, to which the reader is referred for further particulars. Also, vide Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 67-74, 112 et passim. I am indebted for several particulars in this note to Mr. Douglass Brymner, Canadian archivist. 146 George Anson Nutt became an ensign in the Thirty- third Foot, August 28, 1771, and a lieutenant, October 26, 1775. He was in command of a body of about one hundred and fifty men to recruit the Thirty-third - the regiment of Lord Cornwallis, which had accompanied Sir Peter Parker's unsuccessful expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, and which was to have joined Carleton at Quebec, had not a change of plan taken place. He was attached with his command to the artillery in the campaign of 1777, and suffered captivity with the surrendered army until September 3, 1781, when he was exchanged. On October 1, 1780, during his captivity, he was promoted to the rank of captain-lieutenant. In 1783 he went on half pay, but returned to active service in 1787, and became, on May 30, a captain in the Sixty- fifth Foot. Two years later his name disappears from the rolls. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Book, pp. lx, lxx; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 178. 196 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. The line upon the next movement will encamp in order of Battle as follows, and will continue the same till Countermanded. ---------------- 147 Henry Watson Powell became a lieutenant in the Forty- sixth Foot, March 10, 1753, and a captain, September 2, 1756, in the Eleventh, which afterward became the Sixty fourth Foot. In this regiment he served against the French West Indies in 1759, and in 1768 accompanied his regiment to America, June 2, 1770, he was promoted to a majority in the Thirty-eighth, and July 23, 1771, to a lieutenant-colonelcy in the Fifty-third Foot. After his arrival in America in the spring of '76, General Carleton assigned him to the command of the Second Brigade with the rank of brigadier- general. Upon the evacuation by the Americans of Ticon- ---------------- 148 James Inglis Hamilton. Owing to the fact that there were several of this name in the army at the same period, it is difficult to identify the subject of this note during the early part of his career. Dr. O'Callaghan supposes him to have been commissioned captain in the army, February 28, 1755, and of the Thirty-fourth Foot, August 25, 1756. In 1758 this regiment formed part of the expedition against St. Malo, and in 1760 against Belle Isle. On October 17, 1761, he was appointed major in command of the One Hundred and Thirteenth Royal Highland Volunteers, which regiment being disbanded, he retired on half pay on May 25, 1772, Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 197 ---------------- deroga, July 6, 1777, General Powell was left in command of the captured fortress. After the battle of Bennington, an attempt was made to sever Burgoyne's communication with Canada, and an attack was made upon Ticonderoga, which he repelled, thougth with such a considerable loss of men - a large number being taken prisoners - as to give to success ---------------- when he was appointed lieutenant-colonel in the army. On March 11, 1774, he was made lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-first Foot. He served under Carleton in the campaign of '76, and was appointed brigadier-general November 5th of that year. He participated in the disastrous campaign of Burgoyne, acquitting himself "with great honor, ---------------- 149 W. R. Von Gall was colonel of the Hesse Hanau regiment, but at this time was in command of the Hessian regiments of Prince Frederick and Hesse Hanau, which had been formed into a brigade by General Carleton, and he therefore held the rank of brigadier-general during the campaign. Colonel Von Gall was in the various battles of the campaign of '77, and shared the hardships attendant upon it, and seems to have been a good and faithful officer. He was ---------------- 150 Johann Friederich Specht, colonel of the regiment of that name, did not arrive in Canada until the autumn of 1776; hence he did not take part in the campaign of that year. He, however, participated in the campaign of Burgoyne, and commanded the first German brigade. He was 198 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. If it should become necessary to form two lines, the second line is to be formed by the Second Brigade of British doubling upon the first, and the Second Brigade of Germans, doubling in the same manner upon their first. The Brigadiers are always to encamp with their Brigades. Lieut Genl Burgoyne takes the occasion of the Army's assembling to express publickly the high ---------------- the hue of defeat. After Burgoyne's surrender, he abandoned Ticonderoga and returned to Canada, where he held command for several years. He was made a colonel in the army, February 19, 1779, and in 1780 purchased an estate in the suburbs of Quebec. He was made a major-general, November 20, 1782; colonel of the Sixty-ninth Foot, April 16, 1792, and of the Fifteenth Foot, June 20, 1794; lieutenant-general, ---------------- activity and good conduct," according to Burgoyne. He was among the convention prisoners, and was exchanged September 3, 1781. He subsequently became colonel in the army, September 3, 1781; major-general, September 28, 1787; colonel of the Fifteenth Foot, August 22, 1792, and of the Twenty-first Foot, June 20, 1794; lieutenant-general, Janu- ---------------- among the captured officers and shared the captivity of his men. He was unjustly accused of appropriating money to his own use, a charge which grew out of an arrangement which he made, while in winter quarters, with some of the inhabitants, to board his men in exchange for their army rations. These rations he cut down in quantity, in order to accumulate a reserve fund for them, and although it appeared that he was not doing this for private gain, his tyrannical prince, when he returned, after his captivity in 1781, angrily turned him out of his service. There was another reason, however, quite as potent with the prince. As long as his officers remained out of the country, either in the service of ---------------- among the captured troops, and after his exchange in October, 1780, returned to Canada and remained there until peace was declared, when he returned home, in October, 1783. He Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 199 opinion he entertains of the Troops, which his Majesty has been graciously pleased to intrust to his command. They could not have been selected more to his satisfaction, and the Lieut Genl trusts it will be received as one mark of his attention to their glory and welfare, that with the promise of every encouragement the service will allow, he declares a determination and he calls upon every officer to assist him to mentain a steady, uniform system of subordination and obeydience. ---------------- May 3, 1796, and general, January 1, 1801. He died at Lyme, England, July 14, 18 14. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 10; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 45, 117, et passim; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 173; Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 84, part 2, p. 190. ---------------- ary 26, 1797, and general, April 29, 1802. He died July 27, 1803. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, pp. 22, et seq., 190, et passim; A State of the Expedition, Appendix 49; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 45, 176, et passim. ---------------- the British king, or in captivity, the result of that service, the prince received a considerable income from the treasury of Great Britain. Specht and others remained in Canada in the service of George the Third, until the peace, and Von Gall it appears did not have permission to return; hence he was made an example of, and the principal reason given was his return without permission. Certainly no other officer attempted to return after this salutary example. Vide Memoirs of General Riedesel, vol. I, pp. 39, 100; vol. 2, pp. 101-105, 216-218. ---------------- died at Brunswick, June 24, 1787. Vide Memoirs of General Riedesel, vol. I, pp. 26, 62, 66; vol. 2, pp. 47, 73, 100, et passim; Journal of Madame Riedesel, p. 160. 200 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. After which the standing regulations of the army respecting Dutys in camp &c are inserted, with orders for officer's strictly to observe on their several guards and out posts, which from their length I am obliged to omit inserting here. -- GENERAL ORDERS, JUNE 29. The army embarks tomorrow to oppose the enemy. We are to Contend for the King and the Constitution of Great Britain; to vindicate law and relieve the oppressed; a cause in which his majesties Troops, and those of the Princes, his allies, will feel equal excitement. The services required of this particular expedition are critical and conspicuous. During our progress occasions may occur in which no difficulty, nor labour, nor life are to be regarded. - We crossed the Lake pretty much in the same manner before related, excepting that the season was a more pleasant one, and our being a longer time on the passage, owing to the great tediousness of bringing over Artillery and other stores, so requisite for such an expedition. We remained near a week at Bouquet river,151 30 miles North of Crown Point, where we were joined by a nation of Indians, and who, from General Burgoyne, received the most positive orders not to scalp, except the dead. ---------------- 151 The river Bouquet derives its name from Colonel Bouquet, who commanded an expedition against the Indians while Canada was under the French. It was at the place here mentioned that he negotiated a treaty of peace with the savages. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 201 30. The Advanced Corps made their appearance before Ticonderoga. We encamped at Three Mile Point. The line, with the general, were at Putnam's Creek, about six miles in our rear, but expected shortly up. We had a full view from our post of their works lines &c and their flag of Liberty displayed on the summit of the Fort. Our gun boats were anchored across the river out of the range of their cannon, and our two frigates, the largest called the Royal George carrying 32 Guns, and built at St Johns during the winter, with the Inflexible at a small distance from the Gun boats, with a large boom ahead to prevent fire ships coming down from the Fort. Our Indians had many small skirmishes with parties of theirs, and always came off victorious, and what prisoners were taken, all seemed to agree that they intended to make a vigorous defence. With our glasses we could distinguish every thing they were about in the Fort, appearing very busy about their works, and viewing with their glasses our situation force &c. It was entertaining enough, being a scene of life I had not been accustomed to before, and its novelty made it amusing. State of the Army rank and file fit for Duty. British .......................................... 3,252 Germans .......................................... 3,007 Canadians ........................................ 145 Indians .......................................... 500 ------ Total ........................................ 6,904 ====== 26 202 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. I have not included sick officers, servants, Batt- men152 &c. The Country round the Fort is covered with thick wood through [which] roads were to be made for our carrying on regular approaches. July 1. About 12 o clock a small boat of theirs rowed down from the fort within reach of the cannon from our gun boats; she lay on her oars, when we saw her intent was to reconnoitre our post, at first it was proposed to fire on her, but the smallness of the object made it not worth perhaps expending a few shots on, and she returned quietly back to the Fort. 2d. A detachment of about 500 men from our corps were ordered, under the command of Brigr Genl. Frazier, to take possession of an eminence, said to command the Fort. We moved at one o clock, and about three had a skirmish with a large party of the enemy, and drove them under cover of their cannon. We lost some Indians and poor Richd Houghton,153 a ---------------- 152 Batmen. Bβt is a French word, signifying pack-saddle. The government formerly allowed to every company of a regiment in foreign service a batman, whose duty it was to take charge of the cooking utensils, etc., of the company. The term came to be applied to men in charge of baggage, and, finally, though inappropriately, to men in charge of officers' horses. The pack-horses were also called bat-horses, and money paid for service bat-money. 153 Richard Houghton was wounded on the night of July 2d while engaged in trying to save some savages from being captured or destroyed. They had been having a pow-wow, and had become drunk as usual, and probably in a spirit of bravado approached the American lines. Houghton, while Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 203 Lieut of our regiment [was] severely wounded. During that night they were constantly fireing on us from under cover of their guns, where they well knew we could not follow them. Our out sentries and theirs were very near each other, and sleep was a stranger to us. We had but two 6 pounders with us, the road not being cut for a large gun. We fired two evening guns to make them believe there were two Brigades on the ground, and also caused our drums to beat to alarm them in the Fort. 3d. At day break, the remainder of our corps joined us with the First Brigade of British, and soon after, they opened a nine pound battery on us, and by the direction of their shot, they must have seen our 6 pounders, as they killed a man and horse harnessed, in the carriage of the gun, on which we were obliged to move them under cover of a small hill. During the day they killed a few of our men, and some balls ---------------- endeavoring to get the worse than useless creatures back within the British lines, was fired upon by the Americans and wounded. One of the savages was killed and another wounded. Lieutenant Houghton obtained his first commission in the Fifty-third Foot as an ensign, August 30, 1768, and was promoted to a lieutenancy, April 30, 1771. Being wounded in the battle of the 7th of October, and carried to the rear, he was not among the convention prisoners, and undoubtedly remained with the Fifty-third in Canada until its return to England in the summer of 1789. He was commissioned as captain and captain-lieutenant, December 27, 1785, and his name so appears in the army lists of 1793, after which date it is dropped. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 174, 176; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, p. 83; Historical Record of the Fifty-third Foot, p. 4. 204 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. went through our tents, their ground commanding ours. 4th. Before day light, we shifted our camp farther back a small way from the range of their shot, until our 12 pounders could come up to play on them in return; by their not throwing shells, we supposed they had none, which from our camp being on a rocky eminence would have raked us much; as to their balls we did not much mind them being at too great a distance to suffer from any point blank shot from their cannon. About noon we took possession of Sugar loaf hill154 on which a battery was imme- ---------------- 154 Sugarloaf Hill, or Mount Defiance, was an elevation difficult of ascent, which commanded the extensive works at Ticonderoga. The command of Ticonderoga and the defenses in the vicinity had been assigned to Gates by Schuyler, who was in command of the department; but the jealousy of Gates caused him to decline it, and this occasioned some delay in getting the defenses into a condition to meet an assault. Schuyler was bending all his energies toward strengthening the works in his department, and as soon as the decision of Gates was known, he dispatched General Arthur St. Clair to Ticonderoga, which he reached on the twelfth of June. With a strange want of foresight, he took no steps to fortify the important hill which commanded his works, but devoted himself to strengthening them. Burgoyne thus speaks of this neglect of St. Clair: "The manner of taking up the ground at Ticonderoga, convinces me that they have no men of military science. Without possessing Sugar Hill, from which I was proceeding to attack them, Ticonderoga is only what I once heard Montcalm had expressed it to be: 'Une porte pour un honnκte homme de se deshonorer.' They seem to have expended great treasure and the unwearied labor of more than a year to fortify, upon the supposition that we should only attack them upon the point where they were best prepared to resist." Vide Letter to Earl Hervey, 11th July, Fonblanque, p. 247. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 205 diately ordered to be raised. It was a post of great consequence, as it commanded a great part of the works of Ticonderoga, all their vessels, and likewise afforded us the means of cutting off their communication with Fort Independent, a place also of great strength and the works very extensive. But here the commanding officer was reckoned guilty of a great oversight in lighting fires on that post, tho I am informed, it was done by the Indians, the smoak of which was soon perceived by the enemy in the Fort; as he should have remained undiscovered till night, when he was to have got two 12 pounders up tho their getting there was almost a perpendicular ascent, and drawn up by most of the cattle belonging to the Army. They no sooner perceived us in possession of a post, which they thought quite impossible to bring cannon up to, than all their pretended boastings of holding out to the last, and choosing rather to die in their works than give them up, failed them, and on the night of the 5th [day] they set fire to several parts of the garrison, kept a constant fire of great guns the whole night, and under the protection of that fire, and clouds of smoke they evacuated the garrison, leaving all their cannon, amunition and a great quantity of stores. They embarked what baggage they could during the night in their battows, and sent them up to Skeensborough under the protection of five schooners, which Captain Carter155 of the Artillery ---------------- 155 John Carter became a cadet at Woolwich, February 18, 1752; lieutenant-fireworker in the artillery, March 1, 1755; 206 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. with our gun boats followed and destroyed with all their baggage and provisions. As I happened to be one of the Lieutenants of the Grenadiers piquet that night, when we perceived the great fires in the Fort, the general was immediately made acquainted with it and our suspicion of their abandoning the place, who with many other good officers imagined it was all a feint in them to induce us to make an attack, and seemingly with a great reason of probability, tho to me, who could be but a very poor judge, it seemed quite the contrary, as I never before saw such great fires. About 120 clock we were very near committing a most dreadful mistake. At that hour of the night, as I was going my rounds to observe if all the sentrys were alert on their different posts, one sentry challenged a party of men passing under his post, which was situated on the summit of a ravine or gully, and also heard carriages dragging in the same place, who answered friends, but on his demanding the countersign, they did not give it, and by their hesitating appeared at a loss; when the fellow would have instantly fired upon them according to ---------------- second lieutenant, April 1, 1756; first lieutenant, April 2, 1757; captain-lieutenant, January 1, 1759, and captain, December 7, 1763. He participated in the campaign of 1776. At this time he was in command of a park of artillery. He was created a major in the army, August 29, 1777, and was among the captured officers, but died a prisoner, on March 17, 1779. vide Kane's Artillery List: British Army Lists, in loco; History American War (Stedman), vol. I, p. 324; History Royal Artillery (Duncan), vol. I, pp. 176, 244; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 91, 250, 317, et passim. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 207 his orders, had not I come up at the time, on which I caused him to challenge them again; they not answering, I called to the piquet to turn out and stand to their arms, still lothe to fire. Just at the time, Captain Walker156 came up in great haste and told me it was a party of his Artillery with two 12 pounders going to take post on Sugar loaf hill, and his orders to them was to cause it to be kept as secret as possible, which by their too strictly attending to, in not answering our challenge, which ---------------- 156 Ellis Walker was made a cadet at Woolwich, March 1, 1755, and became a lieutenant-fireworker in the Royal Artillery October 29th of the same year. He advanced rapidly in his profession, being commissioned as second lieutenant, April 2, 1757; first lieutenant, January 1, 1759, and captain- lieutenant, August 5, 1761. In this year, war again broke out between England and France, and Captain-Lieutenant Walker sailed on the expedition under Major-General Hodgson against Belle-Isle, in the Bay of Biscay, which, after several attacks and the loss of many men, was captured on the seventh of June, two months after the appearance of the fleet before Port Andre. Walker became a captain, January 1, 1771, and was in the campaign of 1776. In the campaign of 1777 he had charge of the artillery of General Eraser's brigade. He returned to England after the war, and appears on the army list as late as 1820, sixty-five years from the date of his first commission, being then a general, having received the following commissions, viz.: Of major in the army, June 7, 1782; lieutenant-colonel in the artillery, December 1 , 1782; colonel in the army, October 12th, and in the artillery, November 1, 1793; major-general, February 26, 1795; colonel commanding, September 25, 1796; lieutenant-general, April 29, 1802, and general, January 1, 1812. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Kane's Artillery List; History Royal Artillery (Duncan), vol. I, pp. 224, 229; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 154, 159, 250-254, et passim. 208 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. could never be the intention of their orders, was near involving us all in a scene of the greatest confusion, which must have arose from our piquet firing on them. I own I was somewhat alarmed, still thinking the great fires in their lines a feint, and their coming to attack us with more security, imagineing we gave into that feint. 6th. At the first dawn of light, 3 deserters came in and informed that the enemy were retreating the other side of mount Independent. The general was, without loss of time, made acquainted with it, and the picquets of the army were ordered to march and take possession of the garrison and hoist the King's colors, which was immediately done, and the Grenadiers and Light Infantry were moved under the command [of] Brigadier General Frazier, if possible to come up with them with the greatest expedition. From the Fort, we were obliged to cross over a boom of boats between that place and Mount Independent,157 which they, in their hurry, attempted to burn without effect, as the water quenched it, though in some places we could go but one abreast, and had they placed one gun, so as the grape shot [could] ---------------- 157 Mount Independence. It had received this name on the eighteenth of the previous July. On the morning of that day, just after the beating of the reveille, a courier reached the camp of the Americans, who were posted on this hill, with a copy of the Declaration of Independence, which caused great enthusiasm in the camp. A feu-de-joie of thirteen guns, in honor of the thirteen Confederated States, was fired, and the hill was named Mount Independence to commemorate the event. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 209 take the range of the bridge - and which surprised us they did not, as two men could have fired it, and then made off - they would, in all probability, have destroyed all or most of us on the Boom. We continued the pursuit the whole day without any sort of provisions, and, indeed, I may say, we had very little or none, excepting one cow we happened to kill in the woods, which, without bread, was next to nothing among so many for two days after, a few hours rest at night in the woods was absolutely necessary 7th. After marching 4 or 5 miles we came up with above 2000 of the enemy strongly posted on the top of a high hill, with breastworks before them, and great trees cut across to prevent our approach; but not- withstanding all these difficulties, they had no effect on the ardor always shewn by British Troops, who with the greatest steadiness and resolution, mounted the hill amidst showers of balls mixed with buck shot, which they plentifully bestowed amongst us. This being the first serious engagement I had ever been in, I must own, when we received orders to prime and load, which we had barely time to do before we received a heavy fire, the idea of perhaps a few moments conveying me before the presence of my Creator had its force; but a moment's thought partly reconciled it; and let not the reader imagine from that thought, that it was the cause of my deviating at the time from my duty as a soldier, as I have always made it a rule that a proper resignation to the will of the Divine Being is the certain foundation for 27 21O Lieutenant Digbys Journal. true bravery; but to return, we no sooner gained the ascent, than there was such a fire sent amongst them as not easily conceived; they for some hours maintained their ground, and once endeavoured to surround us, but were soon made sensible of their inferiority, (altho we had not more than 850 men engaged, owing to our leaving the camp in so great a hurry, half of our companies being on guard and other duties), and were drove. from their strong hold with great slaughter. They continued retreating from one post to another, the country affording them many. After killing and taking prisoners most of their principal officers, they were totally routed and defeated with great loss. The numbers they had killed cannot easily be ascertained, as a great many fell in the pursuit which continued some distance from the field of action. They had two Colonels killed, one taken prisoner, with many other officers killed and taken prisoners. The action lasted near three hours, before they attempted retreating, with great obstinacy. We had near two hundred killed and wounded. Major Grant,158 24th Regiment who ---------------- 158 Robert Grant was killed early on the morning of the seventh. Being on the advance-guard, he surprised a party of Americans while cooking their breakfasts and drove in their pickets. He had climbed upon a stump to get a view of the situation, when he was picked off by a sharpshooter. Anburey speaks of him as " a very gallant and brave officer." He had served on this same ground twenty years before with the Americans against the French, as a lieutenant. He received his captain's commission in 1762, and, two years later, was assigned to the command of a company in the Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 211 had the advanced guard was the first who fell. We had two other majors wounded, which were all we had with us. Lord Balcarres, Major to the Light Infantry, and Major Ackland of our Battallion, with 15 or 16 other officers killed & wounded, the fire being very heavy for the time. On Col. Frances159 ---------------- Fortieth Foot. His commission to a majority in the Twenty- fourth Foot he had enjoyed but two years, it having been dated March 5, 1775. Vide British Army Lists, in loco.; Travels in the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 327; Naval and Military Memoirs (Beatson), vol. 6, p. 69. 159 Ebenezer Francis was the son of Ebenezer Francis and Rachel Whitmore, and was born in Medford, December 22, 1743. After receiving a careful education, he moved to Beverly, where, in 1766, he was married to Judith Wood. He was commissioned by Congress as captain, July 1, 1775 and was the next year promoted to a colonelcy. By authority of Congress in January, 1777, he organized a regiment - ¦ the Eleventh Massachusetts -- with which he marched to oppose the advance of Burgoyne. Anburey says that, "At the commencement of the action, the enemy were every- where thrown into the greatest confusion, but being rallied by that brave officer, Colonel Francis, whose death, though an enemy, will ever be regretted by those who can feel for the loss of a gallant and brave man, the fight was renewed with the greatest degree of fierceness and obstinacy." So interesting is Anburey's relation of two incidents connected with Colonel Francis' death, that it may be pardonable to repeat them here, though they have been often before repeated. He says: "After the action was over and all firing had ceased for near two hours, upon the summit of the mountain I have already described, which had no ground anywhere that could command it, a number of officers were collected to read the papers taken out of the pocket book of Colonel Francis, when Captain Shrimpton of the Sixty- second regiment, who had the papers in his hand, jumped up and fell, exclaiming ' he was severely wounded.' We all 212 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. falling, who was there second in command, they did not long stand. I saw him after he fell, and his appearance caused me to remark his figure, which was fine & even at that time made me regard him with attention. Our men got more plunder than they could carry, and great quantities of paper money which was not in the least regarded then, tho had we kept it, it would have been of service, as affairs turned out. I made prize of a pretty good mare. In general Burgoyne's letter to Government, he makes particular mention of the Grenadiers, who with the rest of the troops behaved with the greatest bravery. A party of Germans came up ---------------- heard the ball whiz by us, and turning to the place whence the report came, saw the smoke. As there was every reason to imagine the piece was fired from some tree, a party of men were instantly detached, but could find no person, the fellow, no doubt, as soon as he had fired, had slipped down and made his escape." The sequel is curious. After the surrender, while Anburey and some brother officers were prisoners at Cambridge, he says: "A few days since, walking out with some officers, we stopped at a house to purchase vegetables. Whilst the other officers were bargaining with the woman of the house, I observed an elderly woman sitting by the fire, who was continually eyeing us, and every now and then shedding a tear. Just as we were quitting the house she got up, and bursting into tears, said: 'Gentlemen, will you let a poor distracted woman speak a word to you before you go?' We, as you must naturally imagine, were all astonished, and upon inquiring what she wanted, with the most poignant grief and sobbing as if her heart was on the point of breaking, asked if any of us knew her son, who was killed at the battle of Huberton, a Colonel Francis. Several of us informed her, that we had seen him after he was dead. She then inquired about his pocket-book, and if Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 213 time enough also to share in the glory of the day, and the regular fire they gave at a critical time was of material service to us. After the engagement, we made sort of huts covered with the bark of trees for our wounded, who were in a very bad situation, as we had nothing to assist them till the return of an express which was sent to Ticonderoga for surgeons &c. &c. But here the reader will forgive my leaving that place, (& recollect the hurry we were ordered from it) without giving a description of that important fortress. Ticonderoga lies on the western shore, and only a few miles to the northward from the commencement of that narrow inlet ---------------- any of his papers were safe, as some related to his estates, and if any of the soldiers had got his watch; if she could but obtain that in remembrance of her dear, dear son, she should be happy. Captain Ferguson, of our regiment, who was of the party, told her, as to the colonel's papers and pocket-book he was fearful that they were either lost or destroyed, but pulling a watch from his fob, said ' There, good woman, if that can make you happy, take it and God bless you! ' We were all much surprised, as unacquainted, as he had made a purchase of it from a drum boy. On seeing it, it is impossible to describe the joy and grief that was depicted in her countenance; I never in all my life beheld such a strength of passion. She kissed it, looked unutterable gratitude at Captain Ferguson, then kissed it again; her feelings were inexpressible. She knew not how to express or show them. She would repay his kindness by kindness, but could only sob her thanks. Our feelings were lifted up to an inexpressible height. We promised to search after the papers, and I believe, at that moment, could have hazarded life itself to procure them." Vide History of Medford (Brooks), Boston, 1855, pp. 194-196, 513; Travels in the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, pp. 331, et seq., 336; vol. 2, pp. 208-210. 214 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. by which the water from Lake George160 is conveyed to Lake Champlain. Crown Point lies about a dozen miles farther north at the extremity of that inlet. The first of these places is situated on an angle of land, which is surrounded on three sides by water and that covered by rocks. A great part of the fourth side was covered by a deep morass; where that fails, the old French lines still continued as a defence on the north west quarter. The Americans strengthened these lines with additional works and a block house. They had other posts and works with block houses on the left towards Lake George. To the right of the French lines they had also two new block houses with other works. On the eastern shore of the inlet, and opposite to Ticonderoga, they had taken still more pains in fortifying a high circular hill, to which they gave the name of Mount Independent; on the summit of this, which is table land, they had erected a star fort inclosing a large square of barracks well fortified and supplied with artillery. The foot of the ---------------- 160 Champlain was the first European who penetrated the gloom of this wild region, and to the great lake he gave his own name. Four decades later, that self-sacrificing and heroic man, the Pere Jogues, with a wild band of savages, traversed painfully the dangerous trail into the Iroquois country, and on the eve of one of the many festival days of his church - that of Corpus Christi - he came to the bank of this romantic lake, and with religious fervor bestowed upon it the name of St. Sacrament. This name it retained for more than a century, when, in 1755, General Johnson changed its name to Lake George, in honor of the British king, and in evidence of his dominion over this region. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 215 mountain, which on the west side projected into the water, was strongly intrenched to its edge, and the intrenchment well lined with heavy artillery. A battery about half way up the mount, sustained and covered these lower works. The enemy, with their usual industry, had joined those two posts by a bridge of communication thrown over the inlet. This was like many other of their performances, a great and most laborious work. The bridge was supported on 12 sunken piers of very large timber planted at nearly equal distances; the spaces between these were filled with separate floats, each about 50 feet long & 12 feet wide, strongly fastened together with chains and rivets, and as effectually attached to the sunken pillars on the Lake Champlain side of the bridge. It was defended by a boom composed of very large pieces of timber fastened together by riveted bolts, and double chains made of iron an inch and an half square. Thus not only a communication was maintained between these two posts, but all access by water from the northern side was totally cut off. But to return, soon after the action, about 200 prisoners with a Coll Hale161 came in to us, and ---------------- 161 Nathan Hale was born in Hampstead, New Hampshire, September 23, 1743. His father, Moses Hale, removed to Rindge, a border settlement of his native State, when he was about seventeen years of age, and died two years later. Nathan, who had become a farmer and merchant, was married on January 28, 1766, to Abigail Grout of Lunenburg, Mass. From this date he appears as an active and influential 2l6 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. them we obliged to fell trees in order to make a breast work for our protection, not knowing but the enemy might be reinforced and come again to the attack. We were very badly off for provisions, and nothing but water to drink, and tho it rained very hard after the engagement (for the day before and while the action lasted, it was I may say burning hot weather), we had no covering to shelter us, our poor huts being a wretched security against the heavy rain [which] poured on us. 8th. About 11 o'clock the Germans under the command of General Reidzel marched from us towards ---------------- citizen of the town, and when, in 1774, a company of minute- men was formed in Rindge, he became its commander, and was commissioned by the Provincial Congress a captain of militia, June 2, 1774. "The people were nervously waiting for the clouds to break, or, if needs be, for hostilities to commence," when the news of the fight at Lexington reached them, and Hale, at the head of his command of fifty men, marched at once to Cambridge and tendered his services to Washington, which were accepted. He participated in the battle of Bunker Hill, and was commissioned as follows: June 6, 1775, major of Colonel Reed's regiment, the Third New Hampshire Foot; January 1, 1776, major of the Second New Hampshire Foot; November 8th, lieutenant-colonel of the second battalion of New Hampshire troops, and, April 2, 1777, colonel of the same. Hale was held a prisoner by the British, and died in captivity, September 23, 1780. Much discussion has been held over his conduct in surrendering, and different opinions still exist regarding it. These have been ably presented by Colonel Rogers, who, as usual, has not left much for those coming after him to say on the subject. Vide History of Rindge (Stearns), Boston, 1875, pp. 85-177, 541,et passim; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, Appendix 15. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 217 Skeensborough,162 (where it was supposed the main body of our army had by that time arrived) to our very great amazement, and which I believe arose from some little jealousy between the two Generals.163 By this movement, we were left with about 600 fighting men, all our wounded to take care of, and a number of prisoners, in the midst of thick woods, and but little knowledge of the country around, also at too great ---------------- 162 Skenesborough was named for Captain Phillip Skene, a British officer, who was under General Abercrombie in the war with the French, in 1758. Becoming in that war familiar with the region of country about Lake Champlain, he obtained extensive grants of land in the vicinity, sold out his commission in the army, and began a settlement to which his own name became attached. He commonly went by the title of Colonel Skene. The following incident related by Palmer, is worthy repeating: "The history of the surprise of Skenesborough is embellished by an account of a singular discovery made there by the patriots. It is said that some of Herrick's men, while searching Skene's house, found the dead body of a female deposited in the cellar, where it had been preserved for many years. This was the body of Mrs. Skene, the deceased wife of the elder Skene, who was then in Europe, and who was then in receipt of an annuity which had been devised to his 'wife while she remained above ground.'" Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Survey of Washington County, New York (Fitch); History of Lake Champlain (Palmer), p. 104. 163 Digby is mistaken in this surmise. There was, as we well know, considerable jealousy between the German and English portions of the army; but in this instance, the advance of Riedesel was part of a plan which resulted in success to the British arms. Had not Riedesel marched to the support of the troops under Eraser, who had preceded him, it is probable that the Americans would have been the victors in the conflict which followed. Vide Memoirs of Major-General Riedesel, vol. I, pp. 114-117. 28 218 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. a distance from our Army to expect any reinforcements; and by our scouts a certainty of the enemys main body, commanded by general St. Clair,164 not above six miles from us at Castletown; tho we afterwards found that he, since his retreat from Ticonderoga with the army under his command, was compleatly dispirited and thought of nothing but getting farther from us. In this situation General Frazier ---------------- 164 Arthur St. Clair was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1734, and accompanied Admiral Boscawen to America in 1759. He was a lieutenant under Wolfe, and was with that brave man when he fell on the Heights of Abraham. After the peace, he was for a short time in command of Fort Ligonier, in Pennsylvania; but, becoming enamored of a farmer's life, he left the army and assumed the duties of a civilian. The war of the Revolution found him surrounded by a rising family and with every thing about him to make life happy; but he felt that duty called him from the happiness of home-life, and he at once cast in his lot with the patriots. He was appointed a colonel in the Continental army, in January, 1776, and ordered to raise a regiment. Within six weeks he had gathered and equipped his regiment, and was on the march to Canada. He was appointed a major-general, in February, 1777, and on the fifth of June, was ordered to the command, which Gates had declined, of Ticonderoga. He arrived there on the twelfth and assumed command. He has perhaps been censured unjustly for his surrender of that post, but he certainly showed great want of foresight and knowledge in neglecting to fortify Mount Defiance, which commanded his works, and for not destroying his stores before retreating. Palmer says: "When Burgoyne placed his batteries upon the summit of Mount Defiance, he effectually destroyed all hopes of resistance on the part of the Americans. Their only alternative was to surrender or evacuate the works. By adopting the latter course, St. Clair saved the greater portion of his garrison and preserved the nucleus of an army, which ultimately baffled Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 219 was obliged to detach a capt's command with the prisoners to Ticonderoga that night, which weakened us a good deal, during which, it rained very hard, and about day break. 9th, we received orders to march towards Skeensborough. We were obliged to leave all our wounded behind us with a subaltern guard,165 who received orders, if attacked to surrender and rely on the mercy ---------------- Burgoyne and compelled him to capitulate. At the moment, however, all classes of people were astonished at the unexpected result. 'It is an event of chagrin and surprise,' says Washington, 'not apprehended, nor within the compass of my reasoning.' The Council of Safety of New York signalized it as a measure 'highly reprehensible' and 'probably criminal.'" People asserted that Schuyler and St. Clair were bribed by Burgoyne, who fired silver bullets against the fort, which Schuyler and St. Clair gathered and divided. Even Thatcher, in his Military Journal, gravely denies the report. St. Clair suffered much from the severe criticisms passed upon his conduct, from which, indeed, he never recovered, although he remained in the service. In 1781 he was in command of the troops at Philadelphia for the protection of Congress, and, in 1781, was at the siege of Yorktown, and, after the surrender of Cornwallis, joined General Greene in the south. He was a member of Congress in 1786, and president of the House of Representatives in 1787. He was governor of the North-western Territory from 1788 until 1812. He died at Laurel Hill, Pennsylvania, August 31, 1818. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; History of Lake Champlain, p. 146; The Writings of George Washington (Sparks), vol. 4, p. 493. 165 It was Sergeant Lamb who was left in charge of the wounded, and his account of his experiences is very interesting. He says : "It was a distressing sight to see the wounded men bleeding on the ground; and what made it more so, the rain came pouring down like a deluge upon us. 220 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of the enemy. This was a severe order, but it could not be helped in our situation. We had about 30 miles to march and for the first six, we every minute expected to be attacked, and which I must say we were not so well provided for, as on the seventh, part of our ammunition being expended, and our force much reduced; this genl Frazier prudently foresaw, and though he wished to avoid it, yet by his orders, we marched in such a form as to sustain an action with as little loss as possible. By the knowledge of our Indians, we struck into a path that led us to Skeensborough, after a most fatigueing march thro rivers, swamps and a desolate wilderness. The enemy had evacuated that place some days before, not think- ---------------- And still, to add to the distress of the sufferers, there was nothing to dress their wounds, as the small medicine-box, which was filled with salve, was left behind with Surgeon Shelly and Captain Montgomery at the time of our movement up the hill. The poor fellows earnestly entreated me to tie up their wounds. Immediately I took off my shirt, tore it up, and, with the help of a soldier's wife (the only woman that was with us, and who kept closely by her husband's side during the engagement), made some bandages, stopped the bleeding of their wounds, and conveyed them in blankets to a small hut about two miles in our rear. Our regiment now marched back to Skeensborough, leaving me behind to attend the wounded, with a small guard for our protection. I was directed, that in case I should be either surrounded or overpowered by the Americans, to deliver a letter, which General Burgoyne gave me, to their commanding officer. Here I remained seven days with wounded men, expecting every moment to be taken prisoner." Vide Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 143, et seq. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 221 ing it tenable and retired to Fort Anne,166 where they were pursued on the 8th by the 9th regiment, and defeated with great loss, though vastly superior in numbers, the 9th not having above 200 men engaged, which was, I think, risking a great deal to send so small a body, when the 47th and 53d regiments were then at Skeensborough, and might as well have supported them. Hereafter will be seen the consequences of detaching such small numbers from the main body of the army, as it has always been the wish of the Americans to avoid a general engagement, except they have a great superiority, and to surround small parties of ours, and get them into a wood, where the discipline of our Troops is not of such force. We had but one officer killed, and Captn MtGomery167 wounded and taken prisoner, with the ---------------- 166 Fort Anne, named thus in honor of the queen, was built in 1709 by the expedition under Colonel Nicholson, which was organized against the French in that year. It was built of timber and surrounded by a palisade, and was intended only to protect the garrison against the fire of musketry. 167 William Stone Montgomery was the only son of Sir William Montgomery of Dublin, and was born August 4, 1754. He entered the British military service at the age of seventeen, his first commission as cornet in the Ninth Dragoons being dated December 16, 1771. On March 20, 1775, he exchanged into the Forth-fourth Foot, at which date he received a lieutenant's commission, and January 9, 1776, was commissioned a captain in the Ninth Foot. He was wounded at Fort Ann on the ninth of July, and was taken prisoner. The report of General Burgoyne in the History of the Ninth Foot contains the following reference to Captain Montgomery: "An officer of great merit, was 222 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. surgeon. At Skeensborough, the whole army rendezvoused, where Divine service was performed, returning God thanks for our late successes, after which a feu- de-joi was fired, beginning from the ships and great guns, and answered by the small arms of the army. Captn Gardner168 went from that to England express ---------------- wounded early in the action, and was in the act of being dressed by the surgeon, when the regiment changed ground; being unable to help himself, he and the surgeon were taken prisoners." Lamb also speaks of the event as follows: "Captain Montgomery, son to Sir W. Montgomery, bart. of Dublin, was wounded in the leg and taken prisoner, with the surgeon who was dressing his wound, just before we retired up the hill. I very narrowly escaped myself, from being taken prisoner at that time, as I was just in the act of assisting the surgeon in dressing the captain's wound, when the enemy came pouring down upon us like a mighty torrent, in consequence whereof, I was the last man that ascended the hill." Although Captain Montgomery was wounded in the leg, and from Lamb's account it would appear not seriously, for some cause of which we are ignorant, he did not recover, as he is reported in Betham's Baronetage to have died in America at the age of nineteen years. This is an error as he was twenty-three years of age. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record of the Ninth Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 142, et seq. Betham's Baronetage, vol. 5, p. 474; British Family Antiquity, vol. 7, p. 194. 168 Henry Farington Gardner entered the army and was commissioned a cornet of the Sixteenth Light Dragoons -- Burgoyne's regiment - on May 22, 1761. The next year he served with Burgoyne in his brilliant campaign in Portugal. On June 8, 1768, he was made a lieutenant, and on the 20th of July succeeding, adjutant of his regiment. He became captain, November 6, 1772, and accompanied Burgoyne to America as aide-de-camp. He reached Quebec on the twenty- second, five days after leaving Burgoyne's camp, and found Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 223 with the account of our successes since the takeing of the field. I shall here insert the General orders to the Army. HEAD QUARTERS OF THE KING'S ARMY } AT SKEENSBOROUGH, 10th JULY, 1777 } On the 6th July, the enemy were dislodged from Ticonderoga by the mere countenance and activity of the Army, and driven on the same day beyond Skeensborough on the right, and to Hubberton on the left, with the loss of all their Artillery, and five of their armed vessels taken and blown up by the spirited conduct of Captain Carter of the Artillery, with a part of his Brigade of gun boats, a great quantity of amunition, provisions and stores of all sorts, and the greatest part of their baggage. On the 7th Brigadier General Frazier, at the head of a little more than half the Advanced Corps, came up with near 2000 of the enemy strongly posted, attacked and defeated them with the loss on the enemy's part of their principal officers, 200 killed on the spot, a much larger number taken, and about 200 made prisoners. Major general Reidzel, with the advance guard con- ---------------- a vessel -- the Royal George -- in readiness to bear him to England. He sailed on the morning of the twenty-third, and reached England the twenty-second of August. He did not return to America, He was made major of the Light Dragoons, September 11, 1781, and attained the army rank of lieutenant- colonel, November 18, 1790, when his name disappears from the army lists. For a more particular account, reference may be had to Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, p. 242. 224 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. sisting of the Chasseurs Company, and 40 grenadiers and Light Infantry, arrived in time to sustain General Frazier, and by his judicious orders and a spirited execution of them, obtained a share for himself and for his troops in the glory of the action. On the 8th Lieutenant Colo Hill,169 at the head of the 9th regiment, was attacked near Fort Anne by more than six times his number, and repulsed the enemy with great loss, after a continued fire of three hours. In consequence of this action, Fort Anne was burned and abandoned, and a party of this army is now in possession of the country on the other side. These rapid successes, after exciting a proper sense of what we owe to God, entitle the Troops in general to the warmest praise; and particular distinction is due to Brigdr Genl Frazier, who by his conduct and ---------------- 169 John Hill entered the Twenty-fourth Foot, March 15, 1747, as a lieutenant; became adjutant, August 25, 1756; captain-lieutenant, March 9, 1757; captain in the Thirteenth Foot, December 1, 1758; major, October 10, 1765; lieutenant- colonel in the army, September 11th, and of the Ninth Foot, November 10, 1775. Wilkinson's account of the action is somewhat different from this of Burgoyne. He says: "The corps which accompanied General Burgoyne to Skeenesborough, were spread out to keep up and increase the panic produced by the loss of Ticonderoga; the Ninth Regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hill, was sent in pursuit of Colonel Long and his detachment, consisting of the invalids and convalescents, with his regiment about one hundred and fifty strong, making in the whole four or five hundred men. Colonel Long, finding himself pressed, advanced and met Lieutenant-Colonel Hill, and an action ensued, in which the British officer claimed the victory; but it is a fact that the Ninth Regiment had been beaten and was retreat- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 225 bravery, supported by the same qualities in the officers, and soldiers under his command effected an exploit of material service to the King, and of signal honour to the profession of Arms. This Corps have the farther merit of having supported the fatigue of bad weather, without bread and without murmur. Divine service will be performed on Sunday morning at the head of the line, and at the head of the Advanced Corps, and at Sun set on the same day, a Feu de joy will be fired with cannon and small arms at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, the camp at Skeensborough and the camp at Castletown, and the post of Bremen's corps. Sunday, being a day set apart for rejoicing, all working parties are to be remitted, except such as may be necessary for the cleanliness of the camp. Should the weather be fair, the tents are to be struck at 5 in the evening, and the troops to form for the Feu-de-joy an hour before sun set in order ---------------- ing, and, but for the entire failure of Colonel Long's ammunition, the lieutenant-colonel must have been made prisoner, as well as Captain Montgomery of that regiment, who was wounded and left on the field, when, as General Burgoyne tells us, 'Colonel Hill found it necessary to change his position in the heat of action;' but, in truth, when his corps was obliged to retreat, and Colonel Long, for want of ammunition, could not pursue him." It was Lieutenant-Colonel Hill who secreted the colors of the Ninth Regiment in his baggage, contrary to the stipulated terms of surrender, and finally presented them to the king, being rewarded for the act by an appointment on the royal staff, with the army rank of colonel. May 16, 1782. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, p. 190; Historical Record of the Ninth Foot (Cannon), p. 32. 29 226 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of Battle. After the Feu de joy the tents are to be pitched again. Captain Gardner is going to England; officers who have letters to send, to leave them at head quarters, before orderly time the 14 inst. We were obliged to remain a long time at Skeensborough on account of getting horses and wagons from Canada; the Contractor of which, must have realized a great sum, each horse standing Government in about £15 if lost or killed in the service, exclusive of paying the driver, &c &c., and the King's horses, (so called) from our great park of Artillery (for this part of the service was particularly attended to and the Brass train that was sent out on this expedition was perhaps the finest and probably the most excellently supplied as to officers and men that had ever been allotted to second the operations of an army which did not far exceed the second in number) amounted to a considerable number, indeed the expenses of Government were uncommonly great, as I have heard it computed that every man in our service through the whole of America, including loyalists, women and every other hanger on to the camps, &c, allowing for transports, service and a thousand other etceteras, stood government no less than five shillings a day for each person, and it was thought that at this time, and indeed through the whole war, above 100,000 were daily allowed rations, or provisions. Our heavy baggage &c was mostly then sent to stores appointed at Ticonderoga, as there was no longer any water carriage. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 227 The mare I had made prize of was full able to carry as much baggage as I required, and saved me the expense of purchasing one for that purpose; and I suppose at our next moving we had almost as many horses as men, many officers having 3 or 4, tho it was strongly recommended by the general to take as little baggage as possible, which advice I followed, leaving my bedding behind and making use of a Buffalo skin, with a cloak to cover me at nights. That baggage we never after saw, it being through necessity or accident all destroyed. Many here were of opinion the general had not the least business in bringing the army to Skeensborough, after the precipitate flight of the enemy from Ticonderoga, and tho we had gained a complete victory over them, both at Fort Anne and Hubberton, yet no visible advantage was likely to flow from either except prooving the goodness of our troops at the expense of some brave men. They were also of opinion we should have pushed directly to Fort George,170 where it was pretty certain they had above 400 wagons, 4 horses in each, with ---------------- 170 Fort George was erected in 1757, after the destruction of Fort William Henry and the massacre of a large portion of the garrison by the Indians under Montcalm. It was about a mile south-east of the site of Fort William Henry, which was not rebuilt after its destruction by the French, and stood on an eminence about half a mile from the lake. It is described by Hadden as follows: "Fort George which. stands near the water at the end of the Lake (George) is a small square Fort faced with Masonry and contains Barracks for about a hundred Men secured from Cannon Shot. This Fort could not stand a Siege, being commanded, & too con- 228 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. stores &c and not above 700 men, which would have enabled us to push forward, without waiting for horses from Canada to bring on our heavy artillery, which these discontented persons declared, was much greater than we had the smallest use for. Light field pieces were all we wanted exclusive of the heavy cannon, which was sent out to retake Quebec, in case the enemy had succeeded in their plans the winter of 1775. They also avered that after the late actions, the enemy were struck with such a panic, and so dispersed that by that movement we should not have given them time to collect; which our remaining at Skeensborough gave them full sufficient time to do; but I make not the least doubt. Gen Burgoyne had his proper reasons for so acting though contrary to the opinion of many. The country round Skeensborough swarms with rattle snakes, the bite of which is, I believe, mortal. They alarm the person near by their rattles, which providence has wisely ordered for that purpose, and from whence they take their name. 20. We were joined by a very numerous nation of Indians from the Ottawas, and who surpassed all others I had before seen in size and appearance ---------------- fined not to be soon reduced by Bombardment. The Rebels before they abandon'd it had endeavour'd to destroy the defences and actually blew up the Magazine in the side next the Water, which demolished that place." It served principally as a magazine of supplies, and was a connecting link between Ticonderoga and Fort Edward. It was named Fort George in honor of the Duke of York. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 229 when assembled in Congress, which was well worth seeing, they being painted in their usual stile and decked out with feathers of a variety of birds, and skins of wild beasts slain by them, as trophys of their courage; and general Burgoyne, by the help of interpreters, informed them of the cause of the war &c. &c; when they by a groan expressed their approbation of what he had advanced, and the measures he intended to pursue, also their readiness in taking up the hatchet to assist the troops of their father, (King George) which was consented to by the general on a solemn promise from them of not scalping except the dead. They had brought a number of Indian toys, most of which we purchased from them, but were lost with our other baggage as will be hereafter seen. About this time, a letter addressed to general Burgoyne, burlesqueing his proclamation, (see page 3171) appeared, which perhaps may entertain the reader. - To John Burgoyne Esq Lieut General of his majesty's armies in America Colonel of the Queens Regiment of Light dragoons, governor of Fort William in North Britain, one of the Representatives of the Commons of Great Britain and commanding an army and fleet employed on an expedition from Canada &c. &c. &c. Most high, most mighty, most puissant, and sublime general ! When the forces under your com- ---------------- 171 Vide ante p. 189. 230 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. mand arrived at Quebec, in order to act in concert and upon a common principle with the numerous fleets & armies, which already display in every quarter of America the justice & mercy of your King; we, the reptils of America, were struck with unusual trepidation and astonishment. But what words can express the plentitude of our horror, when the Colonel of the Queen's regiment of light Dragoons advanced towards Ticonderoga? The mountains shook before thee, and the trees of the forest bowed their leafy heads. The vast Lakes of the north were chilled at thy presence, and the mighty cataracts stopped their tremendous career and were suspended in awe at thy approach. Judge then, oh ! ineffable Governor of Fort William in North Britain, what must have been the terror, dismay, and despair that overspread this paltry continent of America, and us, its wretched inhabitants! Dark and dreary indeed, was the prospect before us, till like the sun in the Horizon, your most gracious and irresistible proclamation opened the doors of mercy and snatched us, as it were, from the jaws of annihilation. We foolishly thought, blind as we were, that your gracious master's fleets and armies were come to destroy us and our liberties; but we are happy in hearing from you, and who can doubt what you assert, that they were called forth for the sole purpose of restoring the rights of the Constitution to a froward, stubborn generation? And it is for this, oh ! sublime, Lieut Genl! that you have given yourself the trouble to cross the Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 231 wide Atlantic, and with incredible fatigue traversed uncultivated wilds; and we ungratefully refused the profered blessing? To restore the rights of the Constitution, you have called together an amiable host of savages, and turned them loose to scalp our women and children and lay our country waste. This they have performed with their usual skill and clemency, and we remain insensible for the benefit, and unthankful for so much goodness. Our Congress have declared Independence, and our assemblies, as your highness justly observes, have most wickedly imprisoned the avowed friends of that power with which they are at war, and most profanely compelled those whose conscience will not permit them to fight, to pay some small part towards the expenses their country is at in supporting what is called a necessary and defensive war. If we go on thus in our obstinacy and ingratitude, what can we expect, but that you should in your anger give a stretch to the Indian forces under your direction, amounting to thousands, to overtake and destroy us, or what is ten times worse, that you should withdraw your fleets and armies and leave us to our own misery, without completing the benevolent task you have begun in restoring to us the rights of the Constitution. -- We submit, we submit most puissant Coll of the Queen's regiment of Light Dragoons & Governor of Fort William in North Britain, we offer our heads to the scalping knife, and our bellies to the bayonet. Who can resist the terror of your arms? who can resist the 232 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. force of your eloquence? The invitation you have made in the consciousness of Christianity, your royal master's clemency, and the honour of soldiership we thankfully accept; The blood of the slain, the cries of the injured virgins and innocent children, and the never ceasing sighs and groans of starving wretches, now languishing in the gaols and prison ships of New York, call on us in vain, while your sublime proclamation is sounding in our ears. Forgive us, oh ! our country ! forgive us dear posterity ! forgive us all ye foreign powers ! who are anxiously watching our conduct in this important struggle, if we yield implicitly to the persuasive tongue of the most elegant Coll of the Queen's regiment of Light dragoons. Forbear then, thou magnanimous Lieut general, forbear to denounce vengeance against us! forbear to give a stretch to those restorers of the Constitution's rights, the Indians under your directions! let not the messengers of wrath & justice await us in the field, and devastation, famine and every concomitant horror, bar our return to the allegiance of a prince, who by his royal will, would deprive us of every blessing of life with all possible clemency. We are domestic; we are industrious; we are infirm and timid; we shall remain quietly at home and not remove our cattle, our corn, or forage, in hopes that you will come at the head of troops, in the full powers of health, discipline, and valour, and take charge of them for yourselves.-- Behold our wives and daughters; our flocks and herds; our goods Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 233 and chattels, are they not at the mercy of our lord and king, and of his lieutenant general, Member of the house of Commons and Governor of Fort William in North Britain? SARATOGA, July l0172 -- 1777 A B. C D E &c. July 24th. We marched from Skeensborough, and tho but 15 miles to Fort Anne, were two days going it; as the enemy had felled large trees over the river, which there turned so narrow, as not to allow more than one battow abreast, from whence we were obliged to cut a road through the wood, which was attended with great fatigue and labour, for our wagons and artillery. Our heavy cannon went over Lake George, as it was impossible to bring them [over] the road we made, and were to join us near Fort Edward, in case the Enemy were to stand us at that place, it being a good road for cannon and about 16 miles.-- Fort Anne is a place of no great strength, having only a block house, which though strong against small arms is not proof against cannon. We saw ---------------- 172 On the same day General Burgoyne issued a proclamation to the inhabitants of Castleton and neighboring towns, requesting them "to send deputies, consisting of 10 persons or more from each township, to meet Col. Skeene at Castleton July 15th at 10, A. M,, who will give further encouragement to those who complied with the terms of my late manifesto & conditions upon which persons and property of the disobedient may be spared." In reply. General Schuyler, on the 13th issued a counter-proclamation, forbidding these towns to send delegates to meet Burgoyne's commissioner under pain of punishment. Vide Collections New Hampshire Historical Society, vol. 2, pp. 148-150. 30 234 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. many of their dead unburied, since the action of the 8th which caused a violent stench. One officer of the 9th regiment, Lieut Westrop173 was then unburied, and from the smell we could only cover him with leaves. At that action, the 9th took their colours, which were intended as a present to their Colonel Lord Ligonier,174 They were very handsome, a flag ---------------- 173 Richard Westropp had been in the army but a short time, having received his commission of ensign in the Ninth Foot on March 14, 1772, and of lieutenant, January 1, 1774. His regiment took an active part in the campaign of '76, but he passed through it unscathed to meet his fate at Fort Anne. Sergeant Lamb, who saw him fall, says that he was by his side when he was shot through the heart. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 143. 174 Edward Ligonier was the son of Colonel Francis Ligonier, who died after the battle of Falkirk, having risen from a bed of sickness to participate in the battle. He was commissioned captain and lieutenant-colonel in the First Foot, August 15, 1759, at which time his regiment was in America, having participated in the successful siege of Louisburg the previous year. The scene of Burgoyne's campaign was familiar to him, as it was upon Lakes George and Champlain that the First Regiment had operated against the French, nearly twenty years before the date here given by Digby. In 1760 Ligonier was in the trying campaign against the Cherokees, and when that was ended, participated in the expedition against Havana in 1762. The hardships in this campaign were very great we are told. Ligonier returned to England in 1763, and on April 21st of that year, was appointed aide de-camp to the king, with the army rank of colonel. Having succeeded to the Irish title of Viscount Ligonier of Clonmel, in 1770, after the death of his uncle, the field marshal. Earl Ligonier, he was made colonel of the Ninth Foot, August 8th, in the following year, shortly after which time he was advanced to the dignity of Earl Ligonier. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 235 of the United States, 13 stripes alternate red and white, [with thirteen stars] in a blue field representing a new constellation. In the evening, our Indians brought in two scalps, one of them an officer's which they danced about in their usual manner. Indeed, the cruelties committed by them, were too shocking to relate, particularly the melancholy catastrophe of the unfortunate Miss McCrea,175 which affected the general and the whole army with the sincerest regret ---------------- He became major-general in the army, September 29, 1775, and August 29, 1777, lieutenant-general. He died in 1782, when his titles became extinct. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record of the First Foot, pp. 136-148; Ibid., Ninth Foot, p. 123. 175 The story of Jane McCrea has been often related, sometimes in most exaggerated forms; even her life has been elaborately written. The generally accepted version is that David Jones, a Tory officer in Burgoyne's army, sent two Indians, one of whom was called Wyandot Panther, to conduct her to the British camp, where she was to be married, and that on the way thither, the Indians disagreeing with respect to a division of the "barrel of rum" to be paid them for their services, Wyandot Panther killed her with a tomahawk. This version is supported by Wilson in his life of Miss McCrea, whom he says was killed by le Loup, as well as by Neilson, who relates that the Indians exhibited their scalps at a house which they called at, and said that they "had killed Jenny." They had with them Mrs. McNeil - who, it seems, was a cousin of General Fraser - in a state of nudity, and so delivered her to the general, greatly to his embarrassment as well as that of Mrs. McNeil, as his wardrobe was not provided with any thing suitable for a lady to wear. Neilson, commenting upon their treatment of Mrs. McNeil, says: "The inducement to strip and plunder Mrs. McNeil was sufficient to account for the butchery of Miss McCrea." And so it probably was, for the Indians were not 236 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. and concern for her untimely fate. This young lady was about 18, had a pleasing person, her family were loyal to the King, and she engaged to be married to a provincial officer, in our Army, before the war broke out. Our Indians, (I may well now call ---------------- particular whom they murdered, and killed Tories as well as Americans; indeed, the Tories of Argyle flocked to Burgoyne for protection against his savage allies. But we have proof that after all, in this case the Indians were innocent of murder, and that Miss McCrea was killed unintentionally by the Americans. Let us examine this evidence. Miss McCrea had been invited by David Jones to visit the British camp and accompany the several ladies there in an excursion on Lake George. He was troubled about her exposure to danger from the Indians, and intended to press her to marry him at once, that he might be better able to afford her protection. Mrs. McNeil and she were just about to embark under the charge of Lieutenant Palmer and a few soldiers, when, knowing that the Americans were in the vicinity, the lieutenant and his men left them for a few minutes to reconnoitre. While the British soldiers were absent, some of their Indian allies came up and seized Mrs. McNeil and Miss McCrea, and placing the latter upon a horse, hurried away, pursued by a party of Americans, who were close at hand. The Americans fired upon the flying Indians, one of whom, Wyandot Panther, was leading the horse upon which Miss McCrea sat. Mrs. McNeil became separated from Miss McCrea, and did not witness her death, but said afterward that the Americans fired so high as not to injure the Indians, who were on foot. Wyandot Panther, when examined by Burgoyne, affirmed that Miss McCrea was killed by the Americans, who were pursuing him; and General Fraser, at a post-mortem investigation, gave it as his opinion that she was thus killed by the Americans "aiming too high, when the mark was on elevated ground, as had occurred at Bunker's (Breed's) hill." But, in addition to this, we now have more positive proof in the testimony of General Morgan Lewis, to the effect that she had three distinct gunshot Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 237 them Savages) were detached on scouting parties, both in our front and on our flanks, and came to the house where she resided; but the scene is too tragic for my pen. She fell a sacrifice to the savage passions of these blood thirsty monsters, for the particulars of which, I shall refer the reader to General Burgoyne's letter, dated 3rd September, to General Gates, which he will find on page 263, with his manner of acting on that melancholy occasion. I make no doubt, but the censorious world, who seldom judge but by out- ward appearances, will be apt to censure Gen Burgoyne for the cruelties committed by his Indians, and imagine he countenanced them in so acting. On the contrary, I am pretty certain it was always against his desire to give any assistance to the savages. The orders from Lord George Germaine176 ---------------- wounds upon her body, and from the additional fact that when her body was removed, a few years ago, to a new burial place, no mark of a tomahawk or injury of any kind was found upon the skull. We may, therefore, look upon the familiar picture of the two savages holding an unattractive-looking female, who does not appear at all disturbed at the sight of the tomahawk about to descend upon her head, as fictitious. Vide The Life of Jane McCrea (Wilson), New York, 1853; Burgoyne's Campaign and St. Leger's Expedition, pp. 302-313; Neilson's Account of Burgoyne's Campaign, pp. 68-79; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, pp. 187, 189; Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution (Lossing), vol. I, pp. 48, 96, 99, et passim; Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, p. 230, et seq.; Travels in the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, pp. 369-372; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 155-157. 176 Lord George Germaine was the minister for American affairs, which he appears to have managed disgracefully. He 238 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. to General Carlton, on Lieutenant General Burgoyne's taking the command of the Army were as follows. "As this plan cannot be advantageously executed without the assistance of Canadians and Indians, his majesty strongly recommends it to your care, to furnish him with good and sufficient bodies of these men, and I am happy in knowing that your influence among them is so great, that there can be no room to apprehend you will find it difficult to fulfill his majesty's intentions." General Burgoyne, afterwards says in parliament: "As to the Indian alliance, he had always at best considered it as a necessary evil. He determined to go to the soldiers of the State, not the executioners. He had been obliged to run a race with the congress in ---------------- was stiff and imperious, unscrupulous in the gratification of personal resentments, and had been cashiered for cowardice some years before. In Fitzmaurice's Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, we are told that he was a man possessed of "intolerable meanness and love of corruption," and further, that " he wanted judgment in all great affairs, and he wanted heart on all great occasions," was "violent, sanguine and overbearing in his first conception and setting out of plans, but easily checked, and liable to sink into an excess of despondency upon the least reverse without any sort of resource." Fox delighted to compare him to Dr. Sangrado. "For two years," said he, "that a certain noble lord has presided over American affairs, the most violent, scalping, tomahawk measures have been pursued Bleeding has been his only prescription. If a people deprived of their ancient rights are grown tumultuous --- bleed them! if they are attacked with a spirit of insurrection -- bleed them! if their fever should rise into rebellion - bleed them! cries this state physician; more blood! more blood! still more blood!" Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 239 securing the alliance of the Indians. They courted and tempted them with presents, as well as the British. He had in more instances than one controled the Indians &c." 28th. We marched from Fort Anne, but could only proceed about 6 miles, the road being broke up by the enemy and large trees felled across it, taking up a long time to remove them for our 6 pounders, which were the heavyest guns with us. We halted at night on an eminence, and were greatly distressed for water, no river being near, and a report that the enemy had poisoned a spring at a small distance; but it was false, as our surgion tried an experiment on the water and found it good. ---------------- After relating how Dr. Sangrado was remonstrated with for the death of so many patients, he gave the doctor's reply, to the effect that, having written a book on the efficacy of such practice, though every patient should die, he must continue for the credit of his book. He was detested by his associates and by the generals who commanded in America. Temple Luttrell abused him in Parliament, without eliciting a reply. He said on one occasion, while Germaine was present, referring to the Burgoyne campaign, "flight was the only safety that remained for the royal army, and he saw one who had set the example in Germany and was fit to lead them on such an occasion;" and Wilkes said: "The noble Lord might conquer America, but he believed it would not be in Germany." This was in allusion to Germaine's disgraceful conduct as an officer in Germany, for which he was dismissed the service. Vide The Pictorial History of England (Knight), London, 1841, vol. I, p. 325; A History of 'England (Adolphus), London, 1841, vol. 2, p. 496; Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, London, vol. I, pp. 357-359; Journal of the Reign of George the Third (Walpole), London, 1859, pp. 26, 34. 240 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 29th. Moved about 6 or 7 miles farther, and had the same trouble of clearing the road, as the day before. We encamped within a mile of Fort Edward, on the banks of the Hudson river. It was a very good post, and we expected it would have been disputed. There, the road from Fort George then in our possession joined us, and being in possession of that post secured Our heavy guns &c coming from Fort George. It was supposed we should not go much farther without them. Our tents were pitched in a large field of as fine wheat as I ever saw, which in a few minutes was all trampled down. Such must ever be the wretched situation of a Country, the seat of war. The potatoes were scarce fit to dig up, yet were torn out of the ground without thinking in the least of the owner. 30th. We moved on farther to a rising ground about a mile south of Fort Edward, and encamped on a beautiful situation from whence you saw the most romantic prospect of the Hudson's river; interspersed with many small islands, and the encampment of the line about 2 miles in our rear. There is a fine plain about the Fort, which appeared doubly pleasing to us, who were so long before buried in woods. On the whole, the country thereabout wore a very different appearance from any we had seen since our leaving Canada, and from that Fort to Albany, about 46 miles, the land improves much, and no doubt in a little time will be thickly settled. The enemy were then encamped about 4 miles Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 241 from us; but it was not thought they intended to make a stand. At this time a letter appeared addressed to General Burgoyne, I believe found nailed to a tree. There was no name signed, yet it was thought - (how true heaven only knows) - to be wrote by brigadier general Arnold, who opposed our fleet the preceding year on Lake Champlain, and was then second in command under General Gates. He first tells him, not to be too much elated on his rapid progress, as all he had as yet gained was an uncultivated desert, and concludes his letter by desiring him to beware of crossing the Hudson's river, making use of that memorable saying, " Thus far shalt thou go and no farther." We heard by some intelligence from the enemy's camp, that Genls St Clair & Schyler177 were ordered before a com- ---------------- 177 Phillip Schuyler was born at Albany on November 22, 1733. His grandfather and father were men of character and wealth. He inherited large estates under the law of primogeniture, but generously divided them with his brothers and sisters. His mother was a woman of unusual attainments, and gave her son a thorough training. His first service was against the French and Indians in 1755. He was with Lord George Howe, with whom he was a great favorite, in the attack on Ticonderoga, in which attack Howe fell, and to Schuyler was assigned the duty of conveying the body of the young nobleman, who was the idol of his companions-in-arms, to Albany. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in May, 1775, and in June was appointed a major-general. He was assigned to the command of the army in the province of New York, but owing to illness, was obliged to relinquish it to Montgomery. He was most efficient in putting the northern army into a condition of order and discipline; but while engaged in his 31 242 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. mittee of their congress, to account for their reasons of evacuating Ticonderoga. As yet, the fickle Goddess Fortune had smiled upon our arms, and crowned our wishes with every kind of success, which might easyly be seen from the great spirits the Army in general were in; and the most sanguine hopes of conquest, victory &c &c. were formed of crowning the campaign with, from the general down to the private soldier.; but alas ! this life is a constant rota- i duties, was, in March, 1777, superseded by Gates, owing to the persistent efforts of enemies. He was restored to his command again two months later, and at once proceeded with great vigor to put the fortifications in his department into a thorough state of defense, and his army into a condition to meet the advancing Burgoyne. The fall of Ticonderoga and his own retreat from Fort Edward, gave his opponents an opportunity to effect his displacement, and in August he was again superseded by Gates. His magnanimity and noble patriotism in continuing to devote his wealth and services to the cause of his country, put his enemies to shame. At a court of inquiry, called at his request, he was rewarded by a full acquittal. After this, although pressed by Washington, he refused military command, but rendered efficient aid to the cause. The Baroness Riedesel gives us a glimpse of the noble character of the man, in her interesting letters. She had passed through the terrible I scenes which preceded the surrender of Burgoyne, and with her children, approached, with no little fear, the camp of the Americans. What was her surprise and delight to be received with the greatest kindness. We will quote her own description of the scene: "When I approached the tents, a noble-looking man came toward me, took the children out of the wagon, embraced and kissed them, and then, with tears in his eyes, helped me also to alight. 'You tremble,' said he to me; 'fear nothing.' 'No,' replied I, 'for you are so kind, and have been so tender toward my children, that it has inspired me with courage.' He then led me to the Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 243 tion of changes; and the man, who forms the smallest hopes, has generally the greatest chance of happiness. In the evening, our Indians had a skirmish with an advance party of the enemy. It was a heavy fire for about half an hour, when the latter fled with loss. During our stay there, many of the country people came to us for protection. Those are styled by the enemy torys, and greatly persecuted if taken after fighting against them.178 ---------------- tent of General Gates, with whom I found Generals Burgoyne and Phillips. Burgoyne said to me: 'You may now dismiss all your apprehensions, for your sufferings are at an end.' All the generals remained to dine with General Gates. The man who had received me so kindly came up and said to me: 'It may be embarrassing to you to dine with all these gentlemen; come now with your children into my tent, where I will give you, it is true, but a frugal meal, but one that will be accompanied by the best of wishes.' 'You are certainly,' answered I, 'a husband and a father, since you show me so much kindness.' I then learned that he was the American General Schuyler. The day after this we arrived at Albany, where we had so often longed to be. But we came not as we supposed we should, as victors! We were, nevertheless, received in the most friendly manner by the good General Schuyler, and by his wife and daughters, who showed us the most marked courtesy, as, also. General Burgoyne, although he had - without any necessity it was said - caused their magnificently-built houses to be burned." After the adoption of the Constitution, General Schuyler represented his State as a senator, and maintained a high place in the esteem of the American people. His death occurred at Albany, November 18, 1804. 178 This is a moderate statement of the fact. Not only were they killed and banished, but Sabine tells us that the Whigs, after the peace, " Instead of repealing the proscription and banishment acts, as justice and good policy required, they 244 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. August 9th. We moved on to Fort Miller179 9 miles nearer Albany, and which the enemy evacuated some days before. What I could see and learn is, that few of the forts situated on the Hudson River in that part, are proof against cannon; they being built during the last war in order to defend stores and amunition from the inroads of the Indians, who frequently came down in large numbers, plundering and scalping our first settlers residing contiguous ---------------- manifested a spirit to place the humbled and unhappy loyalists beyond the pale of human sympathy. A discrimination between the conscientious and pure, and the unprincipled and corrupt, was not, perhaps, possible during the struggle; but, hostilities at an end, mere loyalty should have been forgiven." And we are further told that, " throughout this contest, and amidst all those qualities displayed by the Americans, many of those qualities being entitled to high respect and commendation, there was none certainly less amiable than their merciless rancor against those among them who adhered to the royal side." The most severe laws were passed against them, one of which, enacted by the State of New York, declared that " any person being an adherent to the king of Great Britain should be guilty of treason and suffer death." Vide Loyalists of the American Revolution (Sabine), Boston, 1864, vol. I, p. 88; History of England (Mihon), vol. 6, p. 127; History of the American Revolution (Ramsay), vol. I, p. 295; The Loyalists of America and Their Times (Ryerson), Toronto, 1880, vol. 11, pp. 5, 78, et passim. 179 This was one of the forts which was noted during the old French wars, and witnessed the achievements of the troops of Sir William Johnson and Baron Dieskau. The place is frequently denominated in writings relating to the campaign of Burgoyne as Duer's House, from the fact that the house of Judge Duer stood near it, and was occupied by Burgoyne as his head-quarters. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 245 to that river, and were full sufficient to withstand any attack made with small arms. I then heard the very disagreeable news of our regiment (53d) being ordered back to garrison. Ticonderoga and Fort George. I was much concerned at it, as in all probability I should not see them again during the war, which must be attended with many inconveniences; but as it was their tour of duty, there was no putting it over tho ever so disagreeable, which it certainly was to every officer in the regiment. We had many sick at this time of fevers & agues so common to the climate. Cap. Wight,180 to whose company I belonged, was so ill as not to be able to go on with us, and many other officers were seized with those disorders, as the heats then were very severe and violent, particularly in a camp. All sorts of meat were tainted in a very short time, and the stench very prejudicial, and cleanlyness about our camp was a great consideration towards the health of ---------------- 180 John Wright entered the Fifty-third Foot upon its formation, in 1756, as an ensign, and on January 31, 1758, was commissioned a lieutenant. Throughout the seven years' war, and until 1768, his regiment was stationed at the important fortress of Gibraltar. It was then ordered to Ireland, and on April 13th of that year Lieutenant Wright was promoted to a captaincy. From this time until its embarkation for America, the Fifty-third remained in Ireland. Captain Wright recovered of the illness mentioned by Digby, and was killed at the battle of Stillwater on October 7th. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record of the Fifty-third Foot, p. 2, et seq; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 176. 246 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. the army. I there received a letter from an officer of ours, who had been wounded at Hubberton, 7th July, in which he informed me that before they were removed to Ticonderoga, the wolves came down in numbers from the mountains to devour the dead, and even some that were in a kind of manner buried, they tore out of the earth; the great stench thro the country being the cause of their coming down, and was enough to have caused a plague. - 10. An express came thro the woods from Genl Clinton,181 who was supposed to be coming up the river from New York, but did not hear what it ---------------- 181 Sir Henry Clinton was the son of George Clinton, who was the governor of New York in 1743, and grandson of Francis Fiennes Clinton, the sixth earl of Lincoln. His ancestors were at an early date interested in the colonization of America. He entered the army in 1758 as a captain of the Guards, and saw active service in the seven years' war, rising rapidly by promotion to the rank of major-general, which position he occupied when ordered to America in 1775. In the battle of Bunker Hill, and subsequently that of Long Island, he took a distinguished part. He was severely, and probably justly criticised for his weak efforts in behalf of Burgoyne; but the chief blame fell upon Howe, the commander-in chief, and upon his recall, Clinton superseded him in the chief command. Being forced to evacuate Philadelphia by the Americans, he headed an expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, which he captured in 1779. The next year Arnold, who had done so much for the American cause, becoming disaffected, joined him, and under his direction aided in an expedition against his former friends, but with little effect. Arnold on this expedition was accompanied by Colonels Dundas and Simcoe, to whom Clinton had secretly given joint commissions, "authorizing them, if they suspected Arnold of sinister in- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 247 contained. Our heavy guns were then shortly expected from Fort George, as moving them was very tedious; a 24 pounder taking many horses to draw it. We had a carrying place to bring over our battows, which was attended with great fatigue and trouble, and were also obliged to make rafts or scows to convey heavy stores &c down the river Hudson. ---------------- tent, to supersede him and put him in arrest." Great inducements were offered to recruits for the king's forces in New York, as by the following copy of an advertisement will appear : "ALL ASPIRING HEROES. Have now an opportunity of distinguishing themselves by joining THE QUEEN'S RANGER HUZZAS Commanded by LIEUTENANT-COLONEL SIMCOE, Any spirited young man will receive every encouragement, be immediately mounted on an elegant horse, and furnished with clothing, accoutrements &c. to the amount of FORTY GUINEAS, by applying to CORNET SPENCER, at his quarters, No. 1033 Water Street, or his rendezvous, HEWITTS TAVERN near the COFFEE HOUSE, and the defeat at BRANDYWINE, on GOLDEN HILL. Whoever brings a Recruit shall instantly receive TWO GUINEAS. Vivant Rex et Regina--" Clinton's efforts, however, were not successful, and he was superseded by Sir Guy Carleton after the surrender of Cornwallis, whom he had failed to relieve. On his return to England he wrote "A Narrative" of his conduct in America in reply to the observations upon it by Lord Cornwallis, and later, " Observations on Stedman's History of the American War." He was appointed governor of Gibraltar in 1795, but, shortly after his arrival there, died on the 22d of December. Vide British Army Lists; Biographical Dictionary (Blake), New York, in loco; History of New York (Dunlap), vol. II, p. 201; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 293-333, et passim; History of the War of the Independence (Botta), Philadelphia, 1820, vol. I, pp. 306, 315; vol, 2, pp. 24-26, 307, 370, et passim; History of the Siege of Boston (Frothingham), p. 148. 248 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. About this time, Cornet Grant183 of Genl Burgoyne's regm't of Light Dragoons, the 16th, made an unsuc- cessful attempt to go express to Gen Clinton, and was obliged to return thro the woods, running many risques of falling into their hands, to the very great dissatisfaction of Gen Burgoyne. ---------------- 182 A large detachment of German troops consisting of Gen Reidzels dragoons who came dismounted from Germany, a body of Rangers, Indians & voluntiers, with 4 pieces of cannon, went from our camp on a secret expedition; their route was not publicly known, but supposed for to take a large store of provisions belonging to the enemy at Bennington, and also horses to mount the dragoons. During the night there was a most violent storm of Thunder, Lightening, wind & rain. It succeeded a very hot day, and was so severe that the men could not remain in their tents, as the rain poured quite through them. Ours stood it better; our horses tore down the small sheds formed to keep the heat of the sun from them, being so much frightened. About day break it cleared up, and a great heat followed, which soon dried all our cloths &c 183 James Grant was commissioned a cornet in the Sixteenth Light Dragoons on December 27, 1775, and was taken prisoner, as will be seen farther on in this journal. He appears upon the list of '79, and a man of the same name was commissioned an ensign in the Twenty-seventh Foot on July 7th of that year, and is continued on the army list to 1784; but, owing to uncertainty as to his identity with the object of our search, it is unprofitable to follow his career. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 249 13th. We moved 3 miles and encamped at a post called Batten Kill, a strong situation bordering on the river Hudson, intended for the army to cross over. Our corps crossed the river with a good deal of trouble, and encamped about 2 miles west of it. The troops crossed in battows, which was very tedious, as we had but few. About a mile below, the horses and baggage forded it with some difficulty, the water being high from a great fall of rain, which came on during the preceding night, in consequence of which, the troops were put into barracs built there for 1000 men by Gen Schyler. His house was a small way in our front, and the best we had as yet seen in that part, and much superior to many gentleman's houses in Canada. It was intended we should move the next day to an eminence a little distance, which was reckoned a good post, and where there was plenty of forage for the army. 16th. Our orders for marching were countermanded and others given out for us, to move at 3 o'clock next morning. As I was upon no particular duty, I rode back to the line, who, with Gen Burgoyne were at Fort Miller, and in the evening returned to our camp, crossing over our new bridge of boats, which was almost then finished. At night I mounted an advanced picquet, and had orders to return to camp next morning at Revally Beating, day break. Nothing extraordinary passed during the night, every thing quiet about our post, and on going to return in the morning received 32 250 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. orders, - the 17th - to remain, as the corps was not to move that day, and to keep a very sharp look out; on which we naturally supposed something extraordinary had happened. Soon after an engineer came out to us with a number of men to throw up a breast work. Still it looked suspicious; but we were soon made acquainted with the melancholy report, that the detachment, which marched from us on the 11th were all cut to pieces by the enemy at Bennington, their force being much superior. Our 4 pieces of cannon were taken, two 6 pounders & two 3 pounders. I fear the officer who commanded, a German, took post in a bad situation, and was surrounded by the enemy after expending all his amunition. Our Albany voluntiers behaved with great bravery; but were not seconded by the Germans and Savages; and it was much regretted British were not sent in their place.183 The express also informed ---------------- 183 This remark of Digby plainly reveals the jealousy which existed on the part of the English toward their German allies - a jealousy which was inexcusable when the relations of both to the war are regarded. That the German auxiliaries performed their duty faithfully, patiently and bravely cannot be questioned; indeed, when we reflect upon all the facts of the case, we can but admire the character which they displayed. It was a piece of great folly on the part of the English general in assigning men equipped as they were, and ignorant of the language, to such a service. Their equipment was ridiculously cumbersome, and rendered them incapable of making any quick movement. But an important fact, related in General Riedesel's Memoirs, should be stated, which shows how they were deceived by supposed loyalists, whom Baum allowed to gather on his Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 251 [us] that the enemy was greatly elated in consequence of the above, and were upon the move; but where he could not tell. Our situation was not the best, as from the great fall of rain our bridge was near giving way by the flood, which almost totally cut off our communication with Genl Burgoyne and the line. Our post was also far from a good one, being surrounded and commanded by hills around - Gen Frazier not intending to remain there above a night or two. About 4 in the evening our picquet ---------------- flanks: "Toward nine o'clock, on the morning of the i6th, small bodies of armed men made their appearance from different directions. These men were mostly in their shirt- sleeves. They did not act as if they intended to make' an attack; and Baum, being told by the provincial, who had joined his army on the line of march, that they were all loyalists and would make common cause with him, suffered them to encamp on his side and rear. Shortly after another force of the rebels arrived and attacked his rear. This was the signal for the seeming loyalists, who had encamped on the side and rear of the army, to attack the Germans; and the result was that Baum suddenly found himself cut off from all his detached posts. For over two hours he withstood the sallies and fire of the enemy - his dragoons, to a man, fighting like heroes - but at last, his ammunition being used up, and no reinforcements arriving, he was obliged to succumb to superior numbers and retreat. The enemy seemed to spring out of the ground; indeed, they were estimated at between four and five thousand men. Twice the brave dragoons succeeded in breaking a road through the enemy's ranks; for, upon their ammunition giving out, Baum ordered that they should hang their carbines over their shoulders and trust to their swords. But bravery was now in vain; and the heroic leader, himself severely wounded, was forced to surrender with his dragoons. Meanwhile the Indians and Provincials had taken flight, and sought safety 252 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. was relieved by Lord Balcarres and the Battallion of light Infantry, who were to lie on their arms there during the night. Our orders were, to be in readiness to recross the river next morning at day break, and during the night, to remain accoutred and ready to turn out at a moments warning. The rain still continued. 18. Our bridge was carried down by the water, and to complete all, the ford where our horses crossed over the 15th was impassable - The river ---------------- in the forest." Thus nobly did these poor Germans fight in a cause in which they had no interest, impelled by loyalty to their prince and zeal to uphold the honor of German soldiers. They were in a strange land, and fighting with and for men whose language they did not understand, and who affected superiority over them. Their position was, indeed, a trying one; and that they realized it, may be seen in the following extract from Anburey's letters: "The Germans, to the number of twenty or thirty at a time, will in their conversations relate to each other that they are sure they shall not live to see home again, and are certain that they shall very soon die; would you believe it, after this they mope and pine about, haunted with the idea that, 'Nor wives, nor children, shall they more behold, Nor friends, nor sacred home.' Nor can any medicine or advice you can give them divert this settled superstition, which they as surely die martyrs to as ever it infects them. Thus it is that men, who have faced the dangers of battle and of shipwreck without fear (for they are certainly as brave as any soldiers in the world) are taken off, a score at a time, by a mere phantom of their own brain. This is a circumstance well known to every one in the army." Vide Memoirs of Major-General Riedesel, vol. I, p. 130, et seq.; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol, 1, p. 161, et seq. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 253 being swelled so much. We had a few battows and a large scow for our cannon; so began to cross; but it was a most tedious piece of work, and late at night before every thing was over - when we lay on our arms - not as yet being exact as to the motions of the enemy. 19. We encamped on our former strong post Batten Kill. On this occasion, the Indians in Congress with Mr Luc184 at their head, with an old ---------------- 184 Luc de Chapt de la Corne Saint-Luc was the son of Jean- Louis de la Corne, who achieved a considerable military reputation in Canada. St. Luc for many years had served with the Indians against the English, and had been regarded by them as a dangerous and cruel enemy. When Canada was lost to France, St. Luc determined to return to the land of his fathers, and embarked, October 17, 1761, on the Auguste with his entire family and over a hundred of the principal persons of the colony. On the coast of Cape Breton the Auguste was wrecked, and St. Luc alone of all the passengers escaped alive. After great hardships he readied Quebec, and finally seeing the uselessness of opposing the English rule, became a British subject; but how faithful to the crown he was may be seen from the fact, that when Montgomery's invasion of Canada appeared to promise success, St. Luc determined to desert with his Indians to the Americans, and secretly wrote to the American general offering his support, which was accepted; but when this acceptance reached St. Luc, the American cause did not promise so well as it promised a short time before, and he concluded to adhere to the English side. For this treachery he was distrusted by Carleton, and Montgomery, when he captured Montreal, refused to include him in the capitulation, being captured by Montgomery, St. Luc was held a prisoner until the spring of 1777, when he was released, and soon after joined Burgoyne with his savages. He seems to have been as treacherous and cruel as his brutal followers, and as soon as the British were in a critical condition, he deserted them. 254 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. Frenchman,185 had long resided amongst them, declared their intention of returning to their respective homes, their interpreter informing the [general] (speaking figuratively in the Indian manner) that on ---------------- Samuel Mott speaks of him as "an arch devil incarnate, who has butchered hundreds, men, women and children of your colonies," and Burgoyne in Parliament thus alluded to him as one secretly practicing against him: "His name is St. Luc le Corne, a distinguished partisan of the French in the last war, and now in the British service as a leader of the Indians. He owes us, indeed, some service, having been formerly instrumental in scalping many hundred British soldiers upon the very ground where, though with a different sort of latitude, he was this year employed. He is by nature, education and practice artful, ambitious and a courtier. To the grudge he owed me for controlling him in the use of the hatchet and scalping-knife, it was natural to his character to recommend himself to ministerial favour by any censure in his power to cast upon an unfashionable general." St. Luc subsequently became a member of the Legislative Council of Canada, and took part in the exciting political questions of the times which succeeded the termination of the war, but did not long survive. He died in the beginning of October, 1784, aged 72 years. Vide Documents Relating to the Colonial History of New York, vol. 10, pp. 112, 132, 345, 500, 629, 750, et passim; Journal du Voyage de M. Saint-Luc de la Corne, Quebec, 1863; History of Canada (Garneau), vol. I, pp. 460, 555; vol. 2, pp. 67, 85, 163, 185; American Archives, 4th Series, vol. 4, pp. 973, 1095; Speech of General Burgoyne on a Motion of Inquiry made by Mr. Vyner in the Parliament, May 26, 1778, and, for a very full account, Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, Appendix No. 17. 185 This was Charles de Langlade, a Frenchman, who had long acted with the Indians, and was familiar with their habits and customs. Anburey calls him Langdale, who, he says, "planned and executed, with the nations he is now escorting, the defeat of General Braddock." He had under Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 255 their first joining his army, the sun arose bright, and in its full glory; that the sky was clear and serene, foreboding conquest and victory; but that then, that great Luminary was surrounded and. almost obscured from the sight by dark and gloomy clouds, which threatened. by their bursting to involve all nature in a general wreck and confusion. This the general (tho in his heart he despised them for their fears and might have sentenced Mr Luc by a general Court Martial to an ignominious death for desertion) yet parted with them seemingly without showing his dislike, fearing, perhaps, their going over to the enemy. On which some companies of rangers were ordered to be raised in their place. At this time, many of the inhabitants, who before came into our camp for protection, calling themselves Torys, went from us over to the enemy, who we hoped soon to make pay dear for their late success at Bennington.186 ---------------- his command warriors from many tribes - Sioux, Sacs, Foxes, Menominees, Winnebagoes, Ottawas and Chippewas. At the assembling of the tribes, he translated the speeches of the Sioux chiefs into the dialect of the Chippewas, and from the Chippewa dialect into the French tongue. For a memoir, vide Collections Wisconsin Historical Society, vol. 7, p. 123; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 356, et seq. 186 This was a constant danger to the Americans. While a large portion of the people was ready to make any sacrifice, however great, for the cause of liberty, another considerable portion was as ready to join the winning side, whichever it might be. This was realized by the American commanders, and was the cause of much embarrassment to them. 256 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. It is scarce to be conceived the many difficulties we had to encounter in carrying on a war in such a country, from the tediousness of removing provisions stores &c, and the smallness of our numbers were much diminished by sending parties back and forward from fort George to our camp. 22nd. A few Germans deserted, one of whom was taken and suffered death.187 Various were the reports then circulating thro our camp, not of the most pleasing kind, which might easily be perceived on the faces of some of our great men, who I believe began to think our affairs had not taken so fortunate a turn as might have been expected; as to my opinion, it was of very little consequence compared to so many abler judges; certain it was, as an Indian express arrived - 28th. - to our camp, that Col. St Leger188 was obliged to retire with his small army to Oswego, in ---------------- 187 On the 21st of August an order of Burgoyne relating to desertion contained the following: "In regard to Deserters themselves, all out posts, Scouts and working Parties of Provincials and Indians, are hereby promised a reward of twenty Dollars for every Deserter they bring in; and in case any Deserter should be killed in the pursuit, their scalps are to be brought off." The unfortunate man here mentioned was George Hundertmark, " guilty of quitting his Post when Centinel without being regularly relieved, and of Desertion," and was sentenced to be shot to death. Vide Burgoyne's Orderly Book, pp. 79, 81, et seq. 188 Barry St. Leger was born in 1737, and entered the Twenty-eighth Foot, April 27, 1756, with the commission of an ensign. The following year he went to America and served under Abercrombie; was made captain in the Forty- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 257 his return towards Canada; but I forgot, I should first have mentioned the nature and cause of his expedition. Lieut Col St Leger, 34th regmt, left Canada about the time we did, with a command of near 700 regulars; viz 100 men from the 8th regmt; 100 from the 34th regmt; Sir John Johnston's regmt of New York,189 133; and the Hannau Chasseurs, 342, with a body of Canadians and Indians and some small pieces of Cannon. He was to go by Lake Ontario, and to come down the Mohock river on the Back settlements to take fort Stanwix190 &c, and ---------------- eighth Foot, and took part in the siege of Louisbourg in 1758. After its capture he accompanied General Wolfe to Quebec, and won distinction there. In July, 1760, he was appointed brigade major, and August 16, 1762, a major of the Ninety-fifth Foot. At the close of the French war, he retired on half pay, but on May 25, 1772, procured an appointment in the army of lieutenant-colonel, and May 20, 1775, received a commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Thirty- fourth Foot. His unfortunate expedition to the Mohawk did not altogether prevent his advancement, as he was made a colonel in the army, November 17, 1780, and a brigadier- general, October 21, 1782. He died in 1789. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; American Historical Record, vol. 3, p. 435; Colonial History of New York, vol. 8, p. 714; John- son's Orderly Book, p. 66, and, for an account of his opera- tions in 1777, The Expedition of Lieut.-Col. Barry St. Leger, by William L. Stone, Albany, 1877. 189 This regiment was known by several names, and very unpleasantly by the Americans on account of its inhumanity. It was called Johnson's Royal Greens on account of the color of its uniform; also as the Queen's Loyal Americans and the Royal Regiment of New York. 190 This fort was erected in 1758 and called Fort Stanwix, taking its name from General Stanwix, an officer under 258 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. to join us at Albany. This was the plan settled by Lord George Germain, as you will see in his letter to Gen Carlton, dated Whitehall March 6th 1777; but why that expedition miscarryed I cannot pretend to say; as the conduct of Col. St Leger [by] common report, which was all I could depend upon, did him every kind of [in] justice in the plan concerted by him for carrying his orders into execution. Our accounts also from Genl Howe, or rather our hearing nothing about his proceedings to the Southward, was another cause of disappointment, as it was but natural to suppose, that had he done nothing very great with so large a body of troops under his command - said to be near 40,000 - we could not easyly penetrate into the enemy's country with one eighth of that number; so that upon mature deliberation, and agreeable to the general's express orders, it was determined by him to drop all sorts of communication with Canada - the Army being too small to afford parties at the different posts between us, and Ticonderoga - and by forcing his way by the greatest exertion possible, fight for the wished for junction with the Southern army; and also to remain on our present ground till provisions stores &c were ---------------- General Abercrombie. After the repulse of Abercrombie by the French at Ticonderoga, in which Lord George Howe, the elder brother of General William Howe of Rolutionary fame, was killed, Abercrombie dispatched Stanwix to build this fort near the head waters of the Mohawk, the site of the present town of Rome. It was repaired and strengthened by General Schuyler in 1776 and received his name. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 259 all up previous to so material a movement. In my opinion, this attempt showed a glorious spirit in our General, and worthy alone to be undertaken by British Troops, as the eyes of all Europe, as well as Great Britain were fixed upon us; tho some disatisfied persons with us did not scruple to give it the appellation of rashness, and were of opinion, that we should have remained at Fort Edward entrenched, until we heard Genl Clinton was come up near Albany; and then pushed on to co operate with him. Our great design & wish then was to draw on a general engagement, which we hoped would be decisive, as by their unbounded extent of country they might, by avoiding it, protract the war. September 2nd. Went out with a large forraging party, as was the custom every morning, and marched 9 miles towards the enemy before we could procure any; it then turning very scarce from our remaining so long on that post. We halted at an exceeding good house near the road, which was deserted by its master and family on our approach. The furniture was good, and which I might have appropriated to what use I pleased. About 3 o'clock we returned to our camp with some hay, not without some odd thoughts on the fortune of war, which levels all distinctions of property, and which our present situation pictured strongly. 4th. A drum[mer], who went from our camp as a flag of truce to Genl Gates, returned, and the following letters which passed from Gen Gates 260 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. to Genl Burgoyne, with his answers and Gates' account of the Bennington affair to their congress, I shall here insert for the amusement of the reader-- To the honourable, the continental congress. Your excellencies will perceive by the inclosed letters, that the glorious victory at Bennington has reduced the boasting stile of Gen Burgoyne so much, that he begins in some degree to think and talk like other men. HEAD QUARTERS OF THE KING'S ARMY ) UPON HUDSON RIVER August 30 1777.} Sir.- Major Genl Reidzel has requested me to transmit the inclosed to Lieut Coll Baum,191 whom the fortune of war put into the hands of your troops at Bennington. Having never failed in my attention towards prisoners, I cannot entertain a doubt of your ---------------- 191 Frederick Baum was lieutenant-colonel of the Brunswick Dragoons, and is spoken of as being a good officer but unfit for this expedition, in which he lost his life; in fact, the troops which he commanded were wholly unfit for the service here assigned them. Stone thus describes the equipment of one of these men: "He wore high and heavy jack boots, with large, long spurs, stout and stiff, leather breeches, gauntlets, reaching high up upon his arms, and a hat with a huge tuft of ornamental feathers. On his side he trailed a tremendous broad sword; a short but clumsy carbine was slung over his shoulder, and down his back, like a Chinese Mandarin, dangled a long queue." It is admitted that Baum and his men fought heroically, but in vain, being overwhelmed by numbers. He lived two days after being wounded, and was buried with military honors August nineteenth. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 261 taking this opportunity to show me a return of civility; and that you will permit the baggage and servants of such officers, your prisoners, as desire it, to pass to them unmolested. It is with great concern, I find myself obliged to add to this application a complaint of the bad treatment the provincial soldiers in the king's service received after the affair at Bennington. I have reports upon oath that some were refused quarter after having asked it. I am willing to believe this was against the order and inclination of your officers; but it is my part to require an explanation, and to warn you of the horrors of retaliation, if such a practice is not in the strongest terms discountenanced. Duty and principle, Sir; make me a public enemy to the Americans, who have taken arms, but I seek to be a generous one, nor have I the shadow of resentment against any individual, who does not induce it by acts derogatory to those maxims upon which all men of honor think alike. Persuaded that a Gentleman of the station to which this letter is addressed will not be comprised in the exception I have made-- I am personally. Sir, Your most humble servant, JNΊ BURGOYNE. HEAD QUARTERS OF THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES Sep. 2nd. Sir. Last night I had the honour of receiving your excellency's letter of the 30th August. I 262 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. am astonished you should mention inhumanity, or threaten retaliation. Nothing happened in the action of Bennington, but what is common when works are carried by Assault. That the savages of America should in their warfare mangle and scalp the unhappy prisoners, who fall into their hands, is neither new nor extraordinary; but that the famous Lieut General Burgoyne, in whom the fine gentleman is united with the soldier and the scholar, should hire the savages of America to scalp Europeans and the descendants of Europeans; nay more, that he should pay a price for each scalp so barbarously taken, is more than will be believed in England until authenticated facts shall in every gazette convince mankind of the truth of this horrid tale. - Miss McCrea, a young lady lovely to the sight, of virtuous character and amiable disposition, engaged to be married to an officer in your army, was with other women and children taken out of a house near Fort Edward, carried into the woods, and there scalped and mangled in the most shocking manner. Two parents with their six children, [were] all treated with, the same inhumanity while quietly residing in their once happy and peaceful dwelling. The miserable fate of Miss McCrea was partly aggravated by her being dressed to receive her promised husband; but met her murderers employed by you. Upwards of one hundred men, women and children have perished by the hands of these ruffians, to whom it is asserted, you have paid the price of blood. Inclosed are letters from your Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 263 wounded officers, prisoners in my hands, by whom you will be informed of the generosity of their Conquerers. Such cloathing, necessaries, attendants &c. which your excellency pleases to send to the prisoners shall be carefully delivered, I am, sir, your most Humble servant H. GATES192 Sir. I received your letter of the 2d inst, and in consequence of your complying with my proposal, have sent the baggage, servants &c of those officers, who are prisoners in your hands. I have hesitated, sir, upon answering the other paragraphs of your letter. I disdain to justify myself against the rhapsodies of fiction, and calumny, which from the first of this contest, it has been an unvaried American policy to propagate; but which no longer impose upon the world. I am induced to deviate from this rule in the present instance, lest my silence should be construed an acknowledgement of the truth of your allegation, and a pretence be thence taken for exercising future barbarities by the American troops. Upon this motive, and upon this alone, I condescend to inform you, that I would not be conscious of the ---------------- 192 After General Gates had written this letter to Burgoyne, he called General Lincoln and his aide-de-camp, Wilkinson, to hear it read. Upon being pressed for an opinion respecting it, his hearers suggested that it might be considered somewhat too personal, to which the old general replied with his usual profane bluntness: "----, I don't believe either of you can mend it," and abruptly terminated the consultation. 264 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. acts, you presume to impute to me, for the whole continent of America, tho. the wealth of worlds were in its bowels and a paradise on its surface. It has happened, that all my transactions with the Indian nations last year and this, have been open, clearly heard, distinctly understood and accurately minuted by very numerous, and in many parts, very prejudiced audiences. So diametrically opposite to truth is your assertion that I have paid a price for scalps, that one of the first regulations established by me at the great Council in May, and repeated and enforced, and invariably adhered to since, was that the Indians should receive compensation for prisoners, because it would prevent cruelty, and that not only such compensations should be witheld, but a strict account demanded for scalps. These pledges of Conquest - for such you well know they will ever esteem them - were solemnly and peremptorily prohibited to be taken from the wounded and even the dying, and the persons of aged men, women and children, and prisoners were pronounced sacred even, in assaults. - Respecting Miss McCrea; her fall wanted not the tragic display you have laboured to give it, to make it as sincerely abhorred and lamented by me, as it can possibly be by the tenderest of her friends. The fact was no premeditated barbarity, on the contrary, two chiefs who had brought her off for the purpose of security, not of violence to her person, disputed who should be her guard, and in a fit of savage passion in the one from whose hands she was snatched, Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 265 the unhappy woman became the victim. Upon the first intelligence of the events, I obliged the Indians to deliver the murderer into my hands, and tho to have punished him by our laws and principles of justice would have been perhaps unprecedented, he certainly should have suffered an ignominous death, had I not been convinced, by circumstances and observation beyond the possibility of a doubt, that a pardon under the terms I prescribed and they accepted, would be more efficatious than an execution to prevent similar mischiefs. The above instance excepted, your intelligence respecting cruelties of the Indians is absolutely false. You seem to threaten me with European publications, which affect me as little as any other threats you could make, but in regard to American publications, whether the charge against me, (which I acquit you of believing), was pencilled from a gazette or for a gazette, I desire and demand of you, as a man of honour, that should it appear in print at all, this answer may follow it. I am Sir, Your humble servant, JNΊ BURGOYNE. 6th. We were pretty credibly informed by accounts which came from the enemy, and were depended upon, that in the action near Bennington, 16th August, we had killed, wounded, prisoners and missing-- including wounded in our hospitals, who escaped-- near 1000 men. It was then expected we should 34 266 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. shortly move, as the magazines of provisions and other stores were mostly up, and our new bridge over the Hudson river was near finished. Our removal from that post was also very necessary, in respect of procuring forage, which began then to turn very scarce; indeed, I wonder we did so well, as it was amazing the great quantity of hay, Indian corn &c we were obliged to provide for so great a number of cattle. Potatoes and all other vegetables were long before consumed, and very few fresh provisions to be got then. A few of our wounded officers and men from the hospitals of Ticonderoga joined the army; also captain Wight and others, who suffered from fever and such disorders, came up. The weather then began to turn cold in the mornings and evenings, which was but badly calculated for the light cloathing of the army, most of our winter apparel being sent from Skeensborough to Ticonderoga in July. Many officers had also sent back their tents and markees, of which I was one, and in their place substituted a soldier's tent, which were then cold at nights though a luxury to what we after experienced 10th. About 11 o'clock, an express arrived with intelligence that the enemy were on the move, and had advanced from their camp at Half Moon to Still water, a few miles nearer us, but they might have saved themselves that trouble, as we should soon have been up with them. He also informed [us] that in consequence of that unfortunate affair at Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 267 Bennington, they were joined by some thousands of Militia, who in all probability would have remained neuter had we proved successful. From these accounts we threw up more works to protect our camp till ready to move towards them; after which we should be as liable to an attack in our rear as front, and the waiting to secure every store &c against such an attack, caused our being so long on that post 11th. We received orders to be in readiness to cross the Hudson river at a moment's warning; but all that day was a continued fall of heavy rain, which continued till the 13th when the morning being very fine, the army passed over the Bridge of boats and encamped on the heights of Saratoga. We encamped in three columns in order of Battle. The duty here turned very severe, such numbers being constantly on either guards or picquets; during that day and the next we had many small alarms, as parties of theirs came very near our camp; but a few companies soon sent them off. 15th. Moved about 3 miles nearer the enemy, and took post on a strong position late in the evening, and had just time to pitch our camp before dark; about 11 at night we received orders to stand to our arms, and about 12 I returned to my tent and lay down to get a little rest, but was soon alarmed by a great noise of fire, and on running out saw Major Ackland's tent and markee all in a blaze, on which I made the greatest haste possible to their assistance, but before I could arrive, Lady Harriot Ackland, 268 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. who was asleep in the tent when it took fire, had providentially escaped under the back of it; but the major was much burned in trying to save her.193 What must a woman of her rank, family and fortune feel in her then disagreeable situation; liable to constant alarms and not knowing the moment of an ---------------- 193 Anburey has the following account of this occurrence: "Our situation, as being the advanced post of the army, was frequently so very alert that we seldom slept out of our cloaths. In one of these situations a tent, in which Major Ackland and Lady Harriet were asleep, suddenly caught fire; the major's orderly sergeant, with great danger of suffocation, dragged out the first person he got hold of, which was the major. It providentially happened that in the same instant Lady Harriet, without knowing what she did, and perhaps not perfectly awake, made her escape, by creeping under the walls in the back part of the tent, and upon recovering her senses, conceive what her feelings must be when the first object she beheld was the major, in the midst of the flames, in search of her! The sergeant again saved him, but the major's face and body was burnt in a very severe manner; every thing they had with them in the tent was consumed. This accident was occasioned by a favorite Newfoundland dog, who being very restless, overset the table on which a candle was burning, (the major always had a light in his tent during the night, when our situation required it) and it rolling to the walls of the tent, instantly set them on fire." The almost romantic attachment of Burgoyne's two officers, Major Acland and General Riedesel and their lovely and devoted wives, relieves in a striking manner the horrors of the campaign, so strongly contrasted is it with the suffering and selfishness which everywhere prevailed. Here were two gentle and refined women amid the wreck and ruin of war, and always very near to the portals of death, living an almost idyllic life of unselfish devotion and love to their husbands, and of charity and self-sacrifice to those about them. Truly it is a spectacle worthy of contemplation! Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 269 attack; but from her attachment to the major, her ladyship bore everything, with a degree of steadiness, and resolution, that could alone be expected from an experienced veteran. 16th. A detachment with about 2000 men with 6 pieces of cannon attended Gen Burgoyne on a reconnoitering party towards the enemy. We remained out till near night, and fired our evening gun at sun set to make them imagine we had taken post so much nearer them; and afterwards returned to our camp with the gun. We heard Gen Gates had been there the preceding day attended by a corps of riflemen. It was then pretty certain and generally believed, and indeed wished for, that we should shortly have a decisive engagement,-- I say wished for, as they never would allow us to go into winter quarters, till we had gained some great advantage over them; should that be the case, many of the country people would join us, but not till then-- they choosing to be on the strongest side. 17th. The whole moved about 9 in the morning, and tho we were marching till near night, we came but 3 miles nearer them - we going a great circuit thro thick woods, for such is all that country-- in order to keep possession of the heights, we lay on our arms not having light or time to pitch our tents. 18th. About 11 in the morning, we heard the report of small arms at a small distance. It was a party of the enemy, who surprised some unarmed men foraging not far from our camp. They killed & wounded 270 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 13, and then retreated194 on our sending a party to oppose them; and during that day and night we were very watchful and remained under arms. 19th. At day break intelligence was received, that Colonel Morgan195 with the advance party of the ---------------- 194 A number of men belonging to the British camp were endeavoring to get some potatoes in a field near by for their mess when surprised by the Americans. Anburey says that they might easily have been taken prisoners, and states the number killed and wounded to have been near thirty. He remarks that "such cruel and unjustifiable conduct can have no good tendency, while it serves greatly to increase hatred, and a thirst for revenge." Vide Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. 1, p. 409. 195 Daniel Morgan has been claimed to be a native both of Pennsylvania and of New Jersey, but his biographer, Graham, decides that he was born in Hunterdon county. New Jersey, in the winter of 1736. His parents were Welsh, and his early life one of hardship. At the age of seventeen he ran away from home and found employment as a farm laborer in Virginia. He was a wagoner in the Braddock expedition and noted for his great strength and daring. While in the frontier service the next year, he was beaten with five hundred lashes for striking a British lieutenant in return for a blow which the officer bestowed upon him with his sword, under the severity of which punishment he would have succumbed had not his constitution been of iron. The terrible marks of this beating, which " cut his flesh to ribbons," he bore to his grave. He was commissioned an ensign in 1758, and, after a rough life of a few years, married and settled down as a farmer in Virginia. When the news of the battle of Lexington reached him, he mustered a picked company of riflemen and marched with them to Cambridge, a distance of six hundred miles, in twenty-one days. It was in the dusk of evening when Morgan met General Washington, who was riding out to inspect the camp. As they met, Morgan touched his broad-brimmed hat and said: "General -- from the right bank of the Potomac." Hastily dismount- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 271 enemy, consisting of a corps of rifle men, were strong about 3 miles from us; their main body amounting to great numbers encamped on a very strong post about half a mile in their rear; and about 9 o'clock we began our march, every man prepared with 60 rounds ---------------- ing, Washington "took the captain's hand in both of his and pressed it silently. Then passing down the line, he pressed, in turn, the hand of every soldier, large tears streaming down the noble cheeks as he did so. Without a word he then remounted his horse, saluted, and returned to the camp." In Arnold's campaign against Canada, Morgan was an active spirit, and was taken a prisoner in the attack upon Quebec. It is said that he wept when he realized the hopelessness of the campaign. While in confinement he was offered a colonel's commission to join the British, but repelled the offer with indignation. After being exchanged, he joined the army of defense and did noble service in the battles which preceded the surrender of Burgoyne. At the close of the battle which decided this event, it is said that Gates approached him with a proposition to desert Washington and support his pretensions to the chief command, but was indignantly repelled by Morgan, who re- plied: "I will serve under no other man but Washington." For this reply Gates revenged himself by not mentioning his name in his report of the battle in which he rendered such distinguished service. After the surrender of Burgoyne, he served in the South, and achieved honor at the battle of the Cowpens, for which he was awarded a gold medal by Congress. At the close of the war he retired to his Virginian farm, which he named Saratoga; but, upon the breaking out of the whisky insurrection in western Virginia, in 1794, he was called to command the militia for its suppression, and soon after was elected to Congress. Before the close of his term he retired, prostrated by sickness. Washington, however, continued to consult him, although he was incapacitated for service. He died at Manchester. Virginia, July 6, 1802. Vide The Life of Daniel Morgan (Graham); also, A Sketch of Morgan by John Esten Cooke. 272 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of cartridge and ready for instant action. We moved in 3 colums, ours to the right on the heights and farthest from the river in thick woods. A little after 12 our advanced picquets came up with Colonel Morgan and engaged, but from the great superiority of fire received from him-- his numbers being much greater - they were obliged to fall back, every officer being either killed or wounded except one,196 when ---------------- 196 The sharpshooters of Morgan caused great havoc in the British ranks. Lamb says: "Several of the Americans placed themselves in high trees, and, as often as they could distinguish a British officer's uniform, took him off by deliberately aiming at his person." Anburey describes most graphically the terrible scenes of the day following this battle: "Our army," he says, " abounded with young officers, in the subaltern line, and in the course of this unpleasant duty (the burial of the dead), three of the 20th regiment were interred together, the age of the eldest not exceeding seventeen. - In the course of the last action, Lieutenant Hervey, of the 62nd, a youth of sixteen, and nephew of the Adjutant-General of the same name, received several wounds, and was repeatedly ordered off the field by Colonel Anstruther; but his heroic ardor would not allow him to quit the battle, while he could stand and see his brave lads fighting beside him. A ball striking one of his legs, his removal became absolutely necessary, and while they were conveying him away, another wounded him mortally. In this situation the surgeon recommended him to take a powerful dose of opium, to avoid a seven or eight hours', life of most exquisite torture; this he immediately consented to, and when the Colonel entered the tent with Major Harnage, who were both wounded, they asked whether he had any affairs they could settle for him ? his reply was, 'that being a minor, every thing was already adjusted; ' but he had one request, which he had just life enough to utter, 'Tell my uncle I died like a soldier.' Where will you find in ancient Rome heroism superior ! " This mode of war- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 273 the line came up to their support and obliged Morgan in his turn to retreat with loss. About half past one, the fire seemed to slacken a little; but it was only to come on with double force, as between 2 & 3 the action became general on their side. From the situation of the ground, and their being perfectly acquainted with it, the whole of our troops could not be brought to engage together, which was a very material disadvantage, though everything possible was tried to remedy that inconvenience, but to no effect, such an explosion of fire I never had any idea of before, and the heavy artillery joining in concert like great peals of thunder, assisted by the echoes of the woods, almost deafened us with the noise. To an unconcerned spectator, it must have had the most awful and glorious appearance, the different Battalions moving to relieve each other, some being pressed and almost broke by their superior numbers. This crash of cannon and musketry never ceased till darkness parted us, when they retired to their camp, leaving us masters of the field; but it was a dear bought victory if I can give it that name, as we lost many brave men. The 62nd had scarce 10 men a company left, and other regiments suffered much, and no very great advantage, honor excepted, was gained by the day. On its turning dusk we ---------------- fare, in which the officers were singled out by accurate marksmen for death, was new to the British and deemed by them cruel. Vide Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 159; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 423, et seq. 35 274 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. were near firing on a body of our Germans, mistaking their dark clothing for that of the enemy. General Burgoyne was every where and did every thing [that] could be expected from a brave officer197 & Brig gen. Frazier gained great honour by exposing himself to every danger. During the night we remained in our ranks, and tho we heard the groans of our wounded and dying at a small distance, yet could not assist them till morning, not knowing the position of the enemy, and expecting the action would be renewed at day break. Sleep was a stranger to us, but we were all in good spirits and ready to obey with cheerfulness any orders the general might issue before morning dawned. 20th. At day break we sent out parties to bring in our wounded, and lit fires as we were almost froze with cold, and our wounded who lived till the morning must have severely felt it. We scarce knew how the rest of our army had fared the preceding day, nor had we tasted victuals or even water for some time before; so sent parties for each. At 11 o'clock, some of our advanced sentrys were fired upon by ---------------- 197 Lamb, who was present, speaks of this in his journal, and others comment upon Burgoyne's coolness and courage in battle - placing himself in the fore front of danger, a conspicuous object for the American sharpshooters, against whose bullets he seemed to bear a charmed life. His presence among his troops was in marked contrast to the action of Gates, who remained in the rear and witnessed no part of this or the previous battle; in fact, we are told by Wilkinson, what seems almost incredible: "That not a single general officer was on the field of battle the 19th Sept. until the evening, when General Learned was ordered out." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 275 their rifle men, and we thought it the prelude to another action; but they were soon silenced. It was Gen Phillips and Fraziers opinion we should follow the stroke by attacking their camp that morning; and it is believed, as affairs after turned out, it would have been better for the army to have done so; why it was not attended, to I am not a judge; tho I believe Gen Burgoyne had material objections to it, particularly our hospitals being so full and the magazines not properly secured to risque that movement.198 About 12 the general reconnoitered our ---------------- 198 Wilkinson gives us a conversation held by him with General Phillips, in which the latter fully explains the reason why Burgoyne did not attack Gates on the twentieth. Said Phillips: "After the affair of the 19th September terminated. General Burgoyne determined to attack you the next morning on your left, with his whole force; our wounded, and sick, and women had been disposed of at the river; the army was formed early on the morning of the 20th, and we waited only for the dispersion of the fog. when General Fraser observed to General Burgoyne, that the grenadiers and light infantry who were to lead the attack, appeared fatigued by the duty of the preceding day, and that if he would suspend the operation until the next morning, he was persuaded they would carry the attack with more vivacity. Burgoyne yielded to the proposition of Fraser; the orders were countermanded, and the corps returned to camp; and as if intended for your safety and our destruction, in the course of the night, a spy reached Burgoyne with a letter from General Sir Henry Clinton, advising him of his in- tended expedition against the highlands, which determined Burgoyne to postpone the meditated attack of your army, and wait events; the golden, glorious opportunity was lost - you grew stronger every day, and on the 7th of October over- whelmed us." This is a very different account from Digby's. Vide Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, p. 251, et seq. 276 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. post and contracted the extent of ground we then covered to a more secure one nearer the river, which we took up in the evening - our left flank near the Hudson river to guard our battows and stores, and our right extending near two miles to heights west of the river, with strong ravines, both in our front and rear, the former nearly within cannon shot of the enemy. On our taking up this ground, we buried numbers of their dead. Their loss must have been considerable, as the fire was very severe. Contiguous to our ground was a fine field of Indian corn, which greatly served our horses, who had but little care taken of them the last 2 days, and many were killed the 19th. At night, half stood to their arms, and so relieved each other, in which time of watch we could distinctly hear them in the wood between us felling trees; from which we supposed they were fortifying their camp, which by. all accounts, and the situation of the country, we had reason to believe was very strong. 21st. Their morning gun, from its report, seemed almost as near as our own, and soon after we heard them beating their drums frequently for orders. At 12 we heard them huzzaing in their camp, after which they fired 13 heavy guns, which we imagined might be signals for an attack; and which would be the most fortunate event that we could have wished, our position being so very advantageous. Soon after we found it was a Feu-de-joy, but for what cause Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 277 we could not tell199 In the evening, an express was sent thro the woods to Gen Clinton, informing him that if he could not advance nearer to Albany, by which movement many troops then opposing us would be drawn off to stop his progress, we should be obliged to return to Ticonderoga by 12th October at farthest, as our provisions would not allow of our remaining there beyond that period. At 6 in the evening we encamped. It rained very heavy, and the general often expressed his desire that the men would take some rest - being greatly harassed after their great fatigue - to make them the better able to bear what might follow. The night was constant rain, and we lay accoutred in our tents 22nd. Formed a bridge of boats across the Hudson, on the left flank of our line. A spy from the enemy was taken near our camp, and we had reason to sup- pose there were many others around. He informed that they had a report Gen Burgoyne was killed on the l9th which must have arose from Capn Green,200 ---------------- 199 This feu-de-joie was probably caused by the reception of the news of the partially successful expedition against Ticonderoga in the rear of Burgoyne's army. On the eighteenth, Colonel Brown attacked Ticonderoga and captured a portion of the Fifty-third Regiment in the old French lines and released about a hundred prisoners, which were held by the British. He also took an armed vessel stationed to defend the carrying place, with several officers. Digby does not recognize the fact that one gun was fired for each of the colonies. 200 Charles Green was born December 18, 1749, at Gibraltar, where his father was stationed with his regiment. At 278 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. one of the aid de camps, being wounded and falling from his horse near the general. About noon there was a confused report of Gen Clinton's comeing up the river, and it must be owned Gen Burgoyne was ---------------- the early age of eleven he became a gentleman cadet in the Royal Artillery, and an ensign in the Thirty-first Foot at the age of sixteen. November 23, 1769, he was made a lieutenant - his regiment being then in Florida - and served against the Charibs in 1772-3. In May he returned to England and was appointed adjutant of his regiment, and became, in 1774, a captain-lieutenant by purchase. He served in the campaign of '76 and, at the beginning of the campaign of '77, was made aide-de-camp to Major-General Phillips. After recovering from the wound which Digby here mentions, he returned in March, 1778, to England, and became aide-de-camp to Lieutenant-General Oughton. He rejoined his regiment in Canada, in 1780, and was appointed major of brigade the following year. He became major of the Thirty-first by purchase in 1788. In 1793 he was made lieutenant-colonel of a battalion, and the next year was transferred to the Thirtieth Foot, which he accompanied to Corsica, where he remained until 1796, when he received the appointment of coast governor of Grenada, which office he retained until 1801, when he returned to England, and, in January, 1797, was promoted to a colonelcy. In October, 1798, he received a further promotion to the rank of brigadier general, and for some time commanded in Ireland. He was raised to the honor of knighthood. May 3, 1803, and in the spring of 1804 conducted an expedition against Surinam, and, after its capture, administered the civil government there for a year, when, owing to broken health, he returned to England, and was further honored by being created a baronet, December 5, 1805. In May, 1807, he was placed in command of the garrison at Malta, which position he retained a year, and, in 1809, was raised to the rank of lieutenant-general, and, in 18 19, to that of general. He died at Cheltenham, England, in 1831. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Annual Biography and Obituary, vol. 16, p. 439. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 279 too ready to believe any report in our favour. Orders were given for our cannon to fire 8 rounds at mid night from the park of Artillery. It was done with a view of causing the enemy to draw in their out posts expecting an attack, at which time 2 officers in disguise were sent express to Gen Clinton with messages to the same effect as was sent the 21st The intention answered, as they stood to their works all that night which was constant rain, 23rd. It was said we were to strengthen our camp and wait some favourable accounts from Gen Clinton, and accordingly began to fell trees for that purpose. I visited our hospitals, which were much crowded, and attended the Auctions of our deceased officers, which for the time caused a few melancholy ideas, though still confirmed me in believing that the oftener death is placed before our eyes the less terrible it appears. All kinds of supplies and stores from Canada were then entirely cut off, as the communication was dropped, and the variety of reports and opinions circulating were curious and entertaining, as I believe our situation was rather uncommon; it was such at least as few of us had before experienced. Some few thouorht we should be ordered to retreat suddenly under cover of some dark night, but that was not thought probable, as it would be cruel to leave the great numbers of sick and wounded we had in such a situation; we also were certain our general would try another action before a retreat was thought on. Others said we waited either to receive 280 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. a reinforcement from Ticonderoga or Gen Clinton, which last might have some weight, but as to the former, we knew there were too few troops there to be able to spare us any. Others again thought when the enemy saw us determined to keep our ground and heard of Gen Clinton's movements, they would draw off part of their great force to oppose him; but that was not thought very probable by their receiving so large reinforcements daily to their camp. On the whole, 1 believe most people's opinions and suppositions were rather founded on what they wished, than on any certain knowledge of what would happen; time only, that great disposer of all human events, could alone unfold to us what was to come. Our few remaining Indians appeared very shy at going out on any scouting parties, indeed, I always took them for a people, whose very horrid figure had a greater effect on their enemy than any courage they possessed, as their cruel turn often assured me they could not be brave, Humanity & pity for the misfortunes of the wretched, being invariably the constant companions of true courage; theirs is savage and will never steadily look on danger. We there got some news papers of the enemy taken from [a] deserter, in which there was an account of the 19th by a Mr. Wilkinson, adjutant genl. to their army, very partially given, saying we retreated the 19th from the field of battle, which was absolutely false as we lay that night on the same ground we fought on. as a proof of which, we buried their dead the morning of Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 281 the 20th - they not venturing near. He concludes with a poor, low expression, saying, "On the 20th the enemy lay very quietly licking their sores.201 24th. At day break they fired on our German picquet and killed 3 men, but this alarm gave us no unnecessary trouble, as we were always under arms an hour before day and remained so till it was completely light. During the night it rained heavy, and on the 26th many bodies not buried deep enough in the ground appeared, (from the great rain), as the soil was a light sand, and caused a most dreadful smell. We still continued making more works. A report [was] circulated [that] Ticonderoga was taken, but not believed. I shall here insert Gen Gates' orders to his troops which we received by a deserter - HEAD QUARTERS OF THE ARMY OF THE } UNITED STATES September 26. 1777.} "The public business having so entirely engaged the attention of the General, that he has not been ---------------- 201 The letter here referred to by Digby was addressed by Wilkinson to Colonel Vischer, who was at Albany on the twentieth of September, and was published in the papers of the day. In it he said: "The concurrent testimony of the prisoners and deserters of various characters, assures us, that General Burgoyne who commanded in person was wounded in the left shoulder, that the 62nd regiment was cut to pieces, and that the enemy suffered extremely in every quarter where they were engaged. As General Burgoyne's situation will shortly constrain him to a decisive action, reinforcements should be immediately pushed forward to our assistance, as our numbers arc far from being equal to an insurance of victory, and every bosom must anticipate the consequences of a defeat. The enemy have quietly licked their sores this day." 36 282 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. properly at leisure to return his grateful thanks to Gen. Poor's202 & Gen Learned's203 Brigades, to the ---------------- 202 Enoch Poor was the son of Thomas and a grandson of Daniel Poor, who was one of the pioneers in the settlement of Andover, Massachusetts, in which town Enoch was born in 1736. After receiving his education, he removed to Exeter, New Hampshire, and engaged in commercial pursuits. When the sound of the guns fired at Lexington reached his ears, he hastened to cast in his lot with the patriots, and was appointed colonel of the Second New Hampshire Regiment. After the evacuation of Boston his regiment was ordered to New York, and later joined in the invasion of Canada. On February 21, 1777, he was appointed a brigadier- general, and did valuable service in the campaign of that year which resulted so gloriously for the cause of Independence. After witnessing the surrender of Burgoyne, General Poor accompanied his command to the Delaware, where he ably supported General Washington in his operations in that quarter, and shared with him the hardships of Valley Forge. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Monmouth, and later in an expedition against the Indians of the Six Nations. In August, 1780, General Poor was placed in command of a brigade under Lafayette, by whom he was greatly esteemed. Unfortunately, while in this command, he had a quarrel with a French officer and was killed by him in a duel, September 8, 1780. Washington, when he announced his death to Congress, spoke of him as "an officer of distinguished merit, who, as a citizen and a soldier, had every claim to the esteem of his country." 203 Ebenezer Learned was born at Framingham, Massachusetts, in 1728, and served as a captain in the French war of 1756-1763. After the battle of Lexington, which fired the military ardor of the country. Learned marched with the Third Massachusetts Regiment, of which he had been made colonel, to Cambridge, which place he reached on the day after the battle. When the army was ordered to New York, Learned, who had contracted disease in the service, retired, by permission of Congress, in May, 1776; but, recovering his health again, offered his services to his country, and was Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 283 regiment of rifle men, to the corps of light infantry and to Colo Marshall's204 regiment for their valiant behaviour in the action of the 19th inst, which will for ever establish and confirm the reputation of the arms of the United States; notwithstanding the General has been so late in giving this public mark of honour and applause to the brave men, whose valour has so eminently served their country, he assures them the just praise he immediately gave to the Honorable, the Continental Congress, will remain a lasting record of their honour and renown. By the account of the enemy; by their embarrassed circumstances; by the desperate situation of their affairs, it is evident they must endeavour by one rash stroke to regain all they have lost, that failing, their utter ruin is inevitable. The General therefore intreats his valiant army, that they will, by the exactness of their discipline, by their alertness to ---------------- appointed a brigadier-general on April 2, 1777, and he soon after joined the army, which was concentrating on the Hudson to repel the advance of the British invaders from Canada. He participated in the campaign which terminated so successfully for the patriots, but, his health again failing, he was obliged to retire permanently from military service on March 24, 1778. He was made a pensioner December 7, 1795, and died April 1, 1801, at Oxford, Massachusetts. 204 Thomas Marshall was born at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1718. He was a captain in the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1763 and the four following years, and was made major of a regiment in 1765, and lieutenant-colonel in 1767. He was in command of the Tenth Massachusetts Regiment at the time here spoken of by Digby, He died at Weston, Massachusetts, November 18, 1800. 284 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. fly to their arms on all occasions, and particularly by their caution not to be surprised, secure that victory, which Almighty Providence (if they deserve it) will bless their labour with." 27th. We received the unwelcome news that a letter from Gen Clinton to Gen Burgoyne (it was not an answer to his of the 21st had fallen into the hands of the enemy. On the express being taken he swallowed a small silver bullet in which the letter was, but being suspected, a severe tartar emetic was given him which brought up the ball.205 We also heard they were in possession of Skeensboro and had a post both there and at Hubberton. We also received accounts of their making an attack upon Ticonderoga and taking prisoners part of the 53rd regiment; but this was not properly authenticated. In the evening our few remaining- Indians left us. 28th. A large detachment was ordered out to forage for the army, which was greatly wanting, as all our grass was ate up and many horses dying for want. We brought in some hay without any skirmish, which we expected going out. 29th. About day break our picquet was fired on from the wood in front, but the damage was trifling. I suppose seldom two armies remained looking at each other so long without coming to action. A man of ---------------- 205 It will be seen that Digby gives the version of this affair which is consonant with the evidence relating to it, which has been preserved. He says that the message taken was from Clinton to Burgoyne, and not from Burgoyne to Clinton, as stated by Fonblanque. Vide ante, note 26. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 285 theirs in a mistake came into our camp in place of his own, and being challenged by our sentry, after recollecting himself, "I believe," says he, "I am wrong and may as well stay where I am." That he might be pretty certain of. 30th. We had reason to imagine they intended to open a battery on our right; they also fired three morning guns in place of two, which caused us to expect a reinforcement, which was soon confirmed by a deserter who came over to us. That evening 20 Indians joined us from Canada; our horses were put on a smaller allowance October 2nd. Dispatches were received from Brigadier General Powell, who commanded at Ticonderoga with his account of their attempt on that place, and being at length repulsed with loss they retreated over the mountains. 3rd. Dispatches from Ticonderoga were taken by the enemy coming thro the woods directed by an Indian. 4th. Our picquet was fired upon near day break, but as our own posts were strong, and we all slept with our clothes on; it was but little minded. Here the army were put on a short allowance of provisions, which shewed us the general was determined to wait the arrival of general Clinton, (if possible), and to this the troops submitted with the utmost cheerful- ness. 5th. A small party of our sailors were taken by the enemy, also about 20 horses, that strayed near their 286 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. lines. The weather continued fair and dry since 26th September. 6th. I went out on a large forage for the army, and took some hay near their camp. On our return we heard a heavy fire and made all the haste possible with the forage. It was occasioned by some of our ranger's falling in with a party of theirs; our loss was trifling. At night we fired a rocket from one of our cannon at 12 o'clock, the reason I could never hear for doing so. In general it is a signal between two armies at a small distance, but that could not have been our case. During the night there were small alarms and frequent popping shots, fired by sentrys from our different outposts. 7th. Expresses were received from Ticonderoga, but what the purport of them were I could never learn. A detachment of 1500 regular troops with two 12 pounders, two howitzers and six 6 pounders were ordered to move on a secret expedition and to be paraded at 10 o'clock, though I am told, Major Williams206 (Artillery) objected much to the removal of the heavy guns; saying, once a 12 pounder is removed from the Park of artillery in America ---------------- 206 Griffith Williams became a gentleman cadet in 1744, and was commissioned a lieutenant-fireworker, April 6, 1745. March 1, 1755, he was advanced to the position of first lieutenant; January 1, 1759, of captain-lieutenant, and February 12, 1760, of captain. He was promoted to a majority in the army, February 17, 1776. In the battle of October seventh he "kept a battery in action until the artillery horses were all destroyed, and his men either killed or wounded; being unable to get off their guns, he was surrounded and taken." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 287 (meaning in the woods) it was gone. From some delay, the detachment did not move till near one o'clock, and moved from the right of our camp; soon after which, we gained an eminence within half a mile of their camp, where the troops took post; but they were sufficiently prepared for us, as a deserter from our Artillery went over to them that morning and informed them of our design. This I have since heard, and it has often surprised me how the fellow could be so very exact in his intelligence, as were I taken prisoner, I could not (had I ever so great a desire) have informed them so circumstantially. About 3 o'clock, our heavy guns began to play, but the wood around being thick, and their exact knowledge of our small force, caused them to advance in great numbers, pouring in a superiority of fire from Detachments ordered to hang upon our flanks, which they tried if possible to turn. We could not receive a reinforcement as our works. General Hospital Stores, provisions &c would be left defenceless, on which an order was given for us to retreat, but not before we lost many brave men. Brigadier General Frazier was mortally wounded which helped to turn the fate of the day. When ---------------- He was subsequently exchanged, and became a major in the artillery, March 21, 1780; lieutenant-colonel, January 9, 1782, and colonel of the Second Battalion, December 1, 1783. He commanded a battery at the siege of Gibraltar, and upon his return, was in command at Woolwich, where he died March 18, 1790, after a service of nearly half a century. Vide Kane's Artillery List and British Army Lists, in loco; History of the Royal Artillery (Duncan), vol. I, pp. 288, 315. 288 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. General Burgoyne saw him fall, he seemed then to feel in the highest degree our disagreeable situation. He was the only person we could carry off with us. Our cannon were surrounded and taken - the men and horses being all killed - which gave them additional spirits, and they rushed on with loud shouts, when we drove them back a little way with so great loss to ourselves, that it evidently appeared a retreat was the only thing left for us. They still advanced upon our works under a severe fire of grape shot, which in some measure stopped them, by the great execution we saw made among their columns; during which, another body of the enemy stormed the Ger- man lines after meeting with a most shameful resistance, and took possession of all their camp and equipage, baggage &c &c Coll Bremen fell nobly at the head of the Foreigners, and by his death blotted out part of the stain his countrymen so justly merited from that days behaviour.207 On our retreating, ---------------- 207 From a careful study of the action of the German soldiers in this and other battles of the campaign of '77 there seems to be no sufficient ground for this statement. The German soldiers on all occasions fought bravely and with astonishing persistence, when it is considered how little they were interested in the success or failure of the cause for which they were imperiling their lives. In this case they were posted to defend the British right flank behind a breast- work of rails extending about two hundred yards across a field. The rails were piled horizontally and supported by pickets driven into the ground. The space between this breastwork and the great redoubt was occupied by the Canadian loyalists, who thus protected the German left flank. While Arnold was making his furious attack on the great Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 289 which was pretty regular, considering how hard we were pressed by the enemy, General Burgoyne appeared greatly agitated as the danger to which the lines were exposed was of the most serious nature at that particular period. I should be sorry from my expression of agitated, that the reader should imagine the fears of personal danger was the smallest cause of it. He must be more than man, who could undisturbed look on and preserve his natural calmness, when the fate of so many were at stake, and entirely depended on the orders he was to issue. He said but little, well knowing we could defend the lines or fall in the attempt. Darkness interposed, (I believe fortunately for us) which put an end to the action. ---------------- redoubt, a large portion of these Canadians were absent from their post, some aiding in the defense of the great redoubt, and at this critical moment Learned appeared with his brigade and drove those who remained from their position, leaving the German left flank wholly exposed. It was then that Arnold came upon the scene from his attack on the great redoubt, and taking in the situation at a glance, seized Learned's brigade, and rushing through the open space in the British lines left by the retreat of the Canadians, fell upon the unprotected left flank and rear of the Germans with a fury which forced them to retreat, leaving their general dead on the field. This left the key of the position in the hands of the Americans. Undoubtedly this was disastrous to Burgoyne; but that the Germans acted cowardly in the matter, we have no evidence to prove. On the other hand, we have the concurrent testimony of English officers that they were brave men, although in this case they have been criticised by several writers, we think, without a full knowledge of all the facts. The courage of the men engaged in this campaign - English, Germans or Americans - cannot be justly impugned. 37 290 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. General Frazier was yet living, but not the least hopes of him. He that night asked if Genl Burgoynes army were not all cut to pieces, and being informed to the contrary, appeared for a moment pleased, but spoke no more. Capt° Wight (53 Grenadiers), my captain, was shot in the bowels early in the action. In him I lost a sincere friend. He lay in that situation between the two fires, and I have been since informed lived till the next day and was brought into their camp. Major Ackland was wounded and taken prisoner with our Quarter master General,208 and Major Williams of the Artillery. Sir ---------------- 208 John Money was a native of Norwich, England, and was commissioned an ensign in the Norfolk militia in 1760, at which date he was twenty years of age. The next year he took part in the battle of Felinghausen as a volunteer, and March 11, 1762, was made a cornet in the Sixth Dragoons; February 10, 1770, he was commissioned a captain in the Ninth Foot, He participated in the campaign of '76, and on July seventeenth of that year was made deputy quartermaster-general. Digby rightly speaks of him as quartermaster- general, as at this time he was acting as such. During this and the previous campaign, he distinguished himself on several occasions. Having been exchanged, he served on the staff of General Cornwallis, and on November 17, 1780, was promoted to a majority in the army, and September 28, 1781, took this position in the Ninth Foot. He was further promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army, November 18, 1790, colonel, August 21, 1795, major- general, June 18, 1798, lieutenant-general, October 30, 1805, and general, June 4, 1814. During this time he was on half pay as a major of the Ninety-first Foot, and was the author of several works of a military character. He died on his estate, called Crown Point, near Norwich, on March 26, 1817. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; The Georgian Era, Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 291 Francis Clerk fell, Aid de camp to the general,209 with other principal officers. Our Grenadier Company out of 20 men going out, left their Captain and 16 men on the field. Some here did not scruple to say, General Burgoyne's manner of acting verified the rash stroke hinted at by General Gates in his orders of the 26th (see page 281) but that was a harsh and severe insinuation, as I have since heard his intended design was to take post on a rising ground, on the left of their camp, - the 7th - with the detachment, thinking they would not have acted on the offensive, but stood to their works, and on that night our main body was to move, so as to be prepared to storm their lines by day break of the 8th and it appears by accounts since, that Gen Gates would have acted on the defensive, only for the advice of Brigadier General Arnold, who assured him from his knowledge of the troops, a vigorous sally would inspire them with more courage than waiting behind their works for our attack, and also their knowledge of the woods would contribute to ensure the plan he proposed. During the night we were employed in moving our cannon Baggage &c nearer to the river. It was done with silence, and fires were kept lighted to cause them not to suspect we had retired from ---------------- vol. 2, p. 97; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. xlvii, xlix, 90, 225; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 142, 176; Remembrancer of Public Events, vol. II, p. 28. 209 Vide ante, note 126. 292 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. our works where it was impossible for us to remain, as the German lines commanded them, and were then in possession of the enemy, who were bringing up cannon to bear on ours at day break. It may easily be supposed we had no thought for sleep, and some time before day we retreated nearer to the river. Our design of retreating to Ticonderoga then became public. 8th Took post in a battery which commanded the country around, and the rest of the army surrounding the battery and under cover of our heavy cannon. About 8 in the morning we perceived the enemy marching from their camp in great numbers, blackening the fields with their dark clothing. From the height of the work and by the help of our glasses, we could distinguish them quite plain. They brought some pieces of cannon and attempted to throw up a work for them, but our guns soon demolished what they had executed. Our design was to amuse them during the day with our cannon, which kept them at a proper distance, and at night to make our retreat, but they soon guessed our intentions, and sent a large body of troops in our rear to push for the possession of the heights of Fort Edward. During the day it was entertaining enough, as I had no idea of artillery being so well served as ours was. Sometimes we could see a 12 pounder take place in the centre of their columns, and shells burst among them, thrown from our howitzers with the greatest judgment. Most of their shot were directed at our bridge Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 293 of boats, as no doubt they imagined we intended to retreat that way; but their guns were badly served. About 11 o'clock general Frazier died, and desired he might be buried in that battery at evening gun fireing. So fell the best officer under Burgoyne, who from his earliest years was bred in camps, and from the many engagements he had been in, attained a degree of coolness and steadiness of mind in the hour of danger, that alone distinguishes the truly brave man. At 12 o clock some of their balls fell very near our hospital tents, pitched in the plain, and from their size, supposed to attract their notice, taking them perhaps for the general's quarters, on which we were obliged to move them out of the range of fire, which was a most shocking scene, - some poor wretches dying in the attempt, being so very severely wounded. At sun set general Frazier was buried according to his desire, and general Burgoyne attended the service, which was performed I think in the most solemn manner I ever before saw; perhaps the scene around, big with the fate of many, caused it to appear more so, with their fireing particularly at our battery, during the time of its continuance.210 About 11 at night, the army began their retreat, General Reidisel commanding the Van guard, and Major ---------------- 210 We have several accounts of this sad scene. Madame Riedesel is especially graphic in her delineation of it, and, as her memoirs are not accessible to most readers, we may be permitted to copy from them: "I had just sat down with my husband at his quarters to breakfast. General Frazier and, I believe, General Burgoyne were to have dined with me on 294 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. General Phillips the rear, and this retreat, though within musket shot of the enemy and encumbered with all the baggage of the army, was made without loss. Our battallion was left to cover the retreat of the whole, which from numberless impediments did that same day. I observed considerable movement among the troops. My husband thereupon informed me, that there was to be a reconnoissance, which, however, did not surprise me, as this often happened. On my way homeward, I met many savages in their war dress, armed with guns. To my question where they were going, they cried out to me, ' War ! War!' which meant that they were going to fight. This completely overwhelmed me, and I had scarcely got back to my quarters, when I heard skirmishing, and firing, which by degrees, became constantly heavier, until, finally, the noises became frightful. It was a terrible cannonade, and I was more dead than alive. About three o'clock in the afternoon in place of the guests who were to have dined with me, they brought into me upon a litter poor General Frazier (one of my expected guests), mortally wounded. Our dining table, which was already spread, was taken away and in its place they fixed up a bed for the general. I sat in the corner of the room trembling and quaking. The noises grew continually louder. The thought that they might bring in my husband in the same manner was to me dreadful and tormented me incessantly. The general said to the surgeon, 'Do not conceal anything from me. Must I die?' The ball had gone through his bowels, precisely as in the case of Major Harnage. Unfortunately, however the general had eaten a hearty breakfast, by reason of which the intestines were distended, and the ball, so the surgeon said, had not gone, as in the case of Major Harnage, between the intestines but through them. I heard him often amidst his groans, exclaim 'Oh, fatal ambition! Poor General Burgoyne! My poor wife'! Prayers were read to him. He then sent a message to General Burgoyne, begging that he would have him buried the following day at six o'clock in the evening, on the top of a hill which was a sort of a Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 295 not move until near 4 o'clock in the morning of the 9th and were then much delayed in breaking up the bridges in our rear. This was the second time of their being destroyed that season - the first by the enemy to prevent our pursueing them. What a great redoubt. I knew no longer which way to turn. The whole entry and the other rooms were filled with the sick, who were suffering with the camp sickness, a kind of dysentery. Finally, toward evening, I saw my husband coming, upon which I forgot all my sufferings, and thanked God that he had spared him to me. He ate in great haste with me and his adjutant behind the house. We had been told that we had gained an advantage over the enemy, but the sorrowful and downcast faces which I beheld, bore witness to the contrary, and before my husband again went away, he drew me one side, and told me that every thing might go very badly, and that I must keep myself in constant readiness for departure; but by no means to give any one the least inkling of what I was doing. I therefore pretended that I wished to move into my new house the next morning, and had every thing packed up. My Lady Ackland occupied a tent not far from our house. In this she slept, but during the day was in the camp. Suddenly one came to tell her that her husband was mortally wounded, and had been taken prisoner. At this she became very wretched. We com- forted her by saying that it was only a slight wound, but as no one could nurse him as well as herself, we counseled her to go at once to him, to do which she could certainly obtain permission, She was the loveliest of women. I spent the night in this manner - at one time comforting her and at another looking after my children whom I had put to bed. As for myself, I could not go to sleep, as I had General Frazier and all the other gentlemen in my room, and was constantly afraid that my children would wake up and cry, and thus disturb the poor dying man, who often sent to beg my pardon for making me so much trouble. About three o'clock in the morning, they told me that he could not last much longer. I had desired to be apprised of the approach of this 296 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. alteration in affairs ! Our hospitals full of sick and wounded were left behind, with a letter from general Burgoyne to general Gates, in which he tells him he makes no doubt of his care to the sick and wounded, conscious of his acting in the same manner himself moment. I accordingly wrapped up the children in the bed coverings and went with them into the entry. Early in the morning, at eight o'clock, he expired. After they had washed the corpse they wrapped it in a sheet and laid it on a bed- stead. We then again came into the room, and had this sad sight before us the whole day. At every instant, also, wounded officers of my acquaintance arrived, and the cannonade again began. A retreat was spoken of but there was not the least movement made toward it. About four o'clock in the afternoon, I saw the new house which had been built for me in flames : the enemy, therefore, were not far from us. We learned that General Burgoyne intended to fulfill the last wish of General Frazier, and to have him buried at six o'clock, in the place designated by him. This occasioned an unnecessary delay, to which a part of the misfortunes of the army was owing. Precisely at six o'clock the corpse was brought out, and we saw the entire body of generals with their retinues on the hill assisting at the obsequies. The English chaplain, Mr. Brudenel, performed the funeral ser- vices. The cannon balls flew continually around and over the party. The American general. Gates, said that if he had known that it was a burial he would not have allowed any firing in that direction. Many cannon balls also flew not far from me, but I had my eyes fixed upon the hill, where I distinctly saw my husband in the midst of the enemy's fire, and therefore I could not think of my own danger. The order had gone forth that the army should break up after the burial, and the horses were already harnessed to our calashes. I did not wish to set out before the troops. The wounded Major Harnage, although he was so ill, dragged himself out of bed, that he might not remain in the hospital, which was left behind protected by a flag of truce. As soon as he observed me in the midst of danger, he had my children Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 297 had the fortune of war placed it in his reach. During our march, it surprised us their not placing troops on the heights we were obliged to pass under, as by so doing, we must have suffered much. We came up with the general and the line about 9 in the morning at Davagot,21 seven miles from the enemy. It then began to rain very hard and continued so all day. We halted till near 3 in the evening, which surprised many; about which time, a large body of the enemy were perceived on the other side the river, and sup- posed to be on their way to Fort Edward in order to obstruct our crossing at that place, on which we were immediately ordered to march after burning all unnec- ---------------- and maid servants put into the calashes, and intimated to me that I must immediately depart. As I still begged to be allowed to remain, he said to me, 'Well then your children at least must go, that I may save them from the slightest danger,' He understood how to take advantage of my weak side. I gave it up, seated myself inside with them, and we drove off with them at eight o'clock in the evening. The greatest silence had been enjoined, fires had been kindled in every direction: and many tents left standing, to make the enemy believe that the camp was still there. We traveled continually the whole night. Little Frederica was afraid and would often begin to cry. I was, therefore, obliged to hold a pocket handkerchief over her mouth, lest our where- abouts should be discovered. At six o'clock in the morning a halt was made, at which every one wondered. General Burgoyne had all the cannon ranged and counted, which worried all of us, as a few more good marches would have placed us in security." Vide Letters and Journals of Madame Riedesel, pp. 1 16-123. 211 This place is now called Coveville. The old name is said to have been derived from dovecote, on account, per- haps, of having been a haunt for wild pigeons. 38 298 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. essary baggage, camp equipage and many wagons and carts, which much delayed our line of march. Here Lady Harriot Ackland was prevailed to go to the enemy, or I might rather say, it was her wish to do so, her husband, the major, being a prisoner. She was conducted to general Gates by a chaplain,212 and received, I am informed, by him with the greatest politeness possible; indeed he must have been a brute to have acted otherwise.213 We waded the Fish ---------------- 212 Rev. Edward Brudenel was the chaplain to the artillery, and is the person to whom Fonblanque erroneously marries Lady Acland after the major's death. His bravery was marked at this terrible funeral by his " steady attitude and his unaltered voice, though frequently covered with dust which the shot threw up on all sides of him." He subsequently became the rector of a parish in Lincolnshire, and died in London, June 25, 1805. Vide note to Hadden's Journal, p. 106. 213 The account of the manner in which Lady Acland received the news of her husband's dangerous condition, namely, that he was mortally wounded and a prisoner in the enemy's hands is related by the Baroness Riedesel and quoted in note 210. She resolved to go to him, and applied to Burgoyne for permission, who says: "Though I was ready to believe that patience and fortitude in a supreme degree were to be found, as well as every other virtue, under the most tender forms, I was astonished at this proposal. After so long an agitation of spirits, exhausted not only for want of rest, but absolutely want of food, drenched in rains for twelve hours together, that a woman should be capable of such an undertaking as delivering herself to an enemy probably in the night, and uncertain of what hands she might fall into, appeared an effort above human nature. The assistance I was enabled to give was small indeed. I had not even a cup of wine to offer her; but was told she had found, from some kind and fortunate hand, a little rum and dirty water. All I could furnish to her was an open boat Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 299 Kiln near Schylers house, about 8 o'clock that night, - the enemy having destroyed the Bridge some days ---------------- and a few lines, written upon dirty and wet paper, to General Gates, recommending her to his protection. In this open boat, accompanied by Chaplain Brudenel, her maid and husband's body servant, who was wounded, at night-fall and in the midst of an icy storm, she set out on her dangerous undertaking. It was ten o'clock when they reached the outpost, and Lady Acland hailed it herself Major Dearborn was in command, and the party were conducted to his quarters, - a log cabin on the shore of the lake. Here they were detained until sunrise, but Lady Acland's mind was partially relieved from anxiety by the announcement that her husband was not in danger from his wounds." Wilkinson says: "I visited the guard before sunrise, her boat had put off and was floating down the stream to our camp, where General Gates, whose gallantry will not be denied, stood ready to receive her with all the tenderness and respect to which her rank and condition gave her a claim; indeed the feminine figure, the benign aspect, and polished manners of this charming woman, were alone sufficient to attract the sympathy of the most obdurate; but if another motive could have been wanting to inspire respect, it was furnished by the peculiar circumstances of Lady Harriet, then in that most delicate situation, which cannot fail to interest the solicitudes of every being possessing the form and feelings of a man." Lady Acland is always spoken of as a woman of charming refinement. General Gates, in a letter to his wife, said: "She is the most amiable, delicate piece of quality you ever beheld.'' She was greatly beloved in the army for her kind attentions to the sick and wounded, often denying herself such little comforts as came to her in order to bestow them upon the suffering. A widow for thirty seven years, she died, July 21, 18 1 5. Vide Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, pp. 284, 377; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, pp. 185-189; Historical Magazine, vol. 4, p. 9; Political and Military Episodes, pp. 297-302; Memoirs of Madame Riedesel, p. 120; Campaign of General John Burgoyne (Stone), Appendix 7. 300 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. before - and took post soon after on the heights of Saratoga, where we remained all night under constant heavy rain, without fires or any kind of shelter to guard us from the inclemency of the weather. It was impossible to sleep, even had we an inclination to do so, from the cold and rain, and our only entertainment was the report of some popping shots heard now and then from the other side the great river at our Battows.214 10th. Preparations were made early in the morning to push for the heights of Fort Edward, and a detachment of artificers we sent under a strong escort to repair the bridges and open the road to that place. The 47th regiment, Captain Frazier's marksmen and MacKay's provincials215 were ordered for that service; ---------------- 214 Madame Riedesel gives an interesting account of the distressing condition of affairs at this period in Burgoyne's army. Vide Her Letters and Journal, pp. 124-134. 215 Samuel McKay was an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, December 30, 1755, and was promoted to the rank of lieu- tenant, December 6, 1756, at which time he was in America. He served through the French war, and at its conclusion, in 1763, retired upon half pay. He was in command of a body of Canadian volunteers at Fort St. John when it was captured by Montgomery in September, 1775, and was made a prisoner. He was sent to Hartford, and while there on parole, attempted to escape, but was recaptured and roughly handled by his captors. He was confined in jail, it was thought, securely, but succeeded in making his escape; and making his way to Canada, raised a company of volunteers, with which he joined St. Leger's expedition. He went safely through the campaign of '77 and died in the summer of 1779. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; American Archives, 4th Series, vol. 4, p. 248; 5 Ibid., vol. 5, p. 452; Ibid., vol. 6, pp. 563> 574, 601, 633; 5th Series, vol. I, p. 133. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 301 but about 11 o clock, Intelligence was received that the enemy were surrounding us, on which it was resolved to maintain our post, and expresses were sent to recall the 47th regiment &c. We burned Schyler's house to prevent a lodgement being formed behind it,216 and almost all our remaining baggage, rather ---------------- 216 Digby doubtless gives the correct version of this affair. Burgoyne was charged with having destroyed property unnecessarily, but denied it in Parliament in the following words: "I am ignorant of any such circumstance; I do not recollect more than one accident by fire. I positively assert there was no fire by order or countenance of myself, or any other officer except at Saratoga. That district is the property of Major General Schuyler of the American troops; there were large barracks built by him, which took fire the day after the army arrived upon the ground in their retreat, and I believe I need not state any other proof of that matter being merely accident, than that the barracks were then made use of as my hospital, and full of sick and wounded soldiers. General Schuyler had likewise a very good dwelling house, exceeding large storehouses, great saw mills and other out buildings, to the value altogether of perhaps ten thousand pounds; a few days before the negotiations with General Gates, the enemy had formed a plan to attack me; a large column of troops were approaching to pass the small river, preparatory to a general action, and were entirely covered from the fire of my artillery by these buildings. Sir, I know that I gave the order to set them on fire; and in a very short time that whole property I have described, was consumed. But to shew that the person most deeply concerned in that calamity, did not put the construction upon it which it has pleased the honourable gentleman to do, I must inform the house, that one of the first persons I saw, after the convention was signed was General Schuyler. I expressed to him my regret at the event which had happened, and the reasons which had occasioned it. He desired me to think no more of it; said that the occasion justified it, according to the principles and rules of war, and he should 302 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. than it should fall into their hands. Here again the discontented part of the army were of opinion that our retreat was not conducted so well as it might have been, and that in place of burning our bridge of boats over the Hudson, which we left on fire on our retreating the night of the 8th from whence it was evident to the enemy which side of the river we intended to keep on, and would oblige us to ford the Hudson opposite to where they had a force; consequently would be attended with a disadvantage. We should have crossed our bridge on the night of the 8th to gain the Fort Edward side of the river, and would have nothing to delay our march - we moving so many hours before they were apprized of our motions. They also declared our halting so long at Davagot, the 9th within 7 miles of the enemy, was the cause of our being surrounded, as even then we had time to have pushed on, and the day being so constant rain was in our favour, as had we attempted to ford the river at Saratoga, the small arms of the enemy, as well as ours must have been so wet, that but few would go off, and they knew our superiority at the bayonet. They also said that even the 10th by spiking our cannon and destroying all our baggage &c a paltry consideration in comparison, in our circumstances - we might have made our retreat good to Fort George, ---------------- have done the same upon the same occasion, or words to that effect." Vide Speech of General Burgoyne on a Motion of Inquiry made by Mr. Vyner in Parliament, May 26, 1778. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 303 saving the troops and Musquetry: but even then it was not certain that vessels were prepared to convey us over the lake; in which case it would have been a worse post than Saratoga for the army. These were the opinions of unsatisfied and discontented men, who never approved of anything that turned out contrary to their expectations. Had Burgoyne been fortunate, they would not have dared to declare them; as he was unsuccessful, they set him down guilty. However, all thoughts of a retreat were then given over, and a determination [made] to fall nobly together, rather than disgrace the name of British troops; on which we immediately changed our ground a little, and under the protection of that night, began to entrench ourselves, all hands being ordered to work. We were called together and desired to tell our men that their own safety, as well as ours, depended on their making a vigorous defence; but that I was sure was an unnecessary caution, - well knowing they would never forfeit the title of Soldiers. As for the Germans, we had but a poor opinion of their spirit since the night of the 7th Certain our situation was not the most pleasing; but we were to make the best of it, and I had long before accustomed and familiarized my mind to bear with patience any change that might happen. The men worked without ceasing during the night, and without the least complaining of fatigue, our cannon were drawn up to the embrasures and pointed ready to receive them at day break. 304 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 11th. Their cannon and ours began to play on each other. They took many of our Battows on the river, as our cannon could not protect them. We were obliged to bring our oxen and horses into our lines, where they had the wretched prospect of living but a few days, as our grass was all gone, and nothing after but the leaves of the trees for them; still they continued fireing into us from Batteries they had erected during the night, and placed their riflemen in the tops of trees; but still did not venture to storm our works. At night we strengthened our works and threw up more. 12th. Our cattle began to die fast and the stench was very prejudicial in so small a space. A cannon shot was near taking the general, as it lodged quite close to him in a large oak tree. We now began to perceive their design by keeping at such a distance, which was to starve us out. I believe the generals greatest wish, as indeed it ought to be, was for them to attack us, but they acted with much greater prudence, well knowing what a great slaughter we must have made among them : they also knew exactly the state of our provisions, which was [sufficient for] but 4 or 5 days more, and that upon short allowance. In the evening, many of our Canadian drivers of wagons, carts and other like services, found means to escape from us. At night, I ventured to take a little sleep which had long been a stranger to me, and tho but a short time could be spared between our watches, yet [I] found myself much refreshed. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 305 We were all in pretty good health, though lying in wet trenches newly dug must be very prejudicial to the constitution, and tho it might not affect it for the time, yet rheumatism afterwards would be the certain consequence. 13th. Their cannon racked our post very much; the bulk of their army was hourly reinforced by militia flocking in to them from all parts, and their situation, which nearly surrounded us, was from the nature of the ground unattackable in all parts; and since the 7th the men lay constantly upon their arms, - Harassed and fatigued beyond measure, from their great want of rest. All night we threw up Traverse217 to our works, as our lines were enfiladed or flanked by their cannon. 14th A council of war was called, and a flag of truce sent to the enemy by Major Kingston,218 and the ---------------- 217 A traverse, in military parlance, is a breastwork thrown up to protect a line of works against an enfilading or reverse fire. 218 Robert Kingston was commissioned an ensign in the Eleventh Foot, September 3, 1756, and a lieutenant, January 26, 1758. August 8, 1759, he exchanged into Burgoyne's regiment, the Sixteenth Light Dragoons, and served in the Portugal campaign, in which Burgoyne achieved renown. For his meritorious services he was advanced to the grade of captain, April 27, 1761; was made major, July 15, 1768, and served with his regiment until 1774, when he went on half pay until April 17, 1776. He accompanied Burgoyne on his return to America in the spring of 1777, as deputy adjutant-general, and August 29, 1777, became a lieutenant-colonel in the army, and after the death of Sir Francis Gierke took that lamented officer's position of sec- 39 306 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. following message delivered by him to Gen Gates from Gen Burgoyne. "I am directed to represent retary to General Burgoyne. He it was who conducted the negotiations leading to the surrender. On approaching the advanced post between the armies he was met by Wilkinson, the adjutant of Gates, and conducted blindfolded to the tent of the American general. Wilkinson says that at this time "he appeared to be about forty; he was a well-formed, ruddy, handsome man, and expatiated with taste and eloquence on the beautiful scenery of the Hudson's river and the charms of the season. When I introduced him into General Gates' tent and named him, the gentlemen saluted each other familiarly with 'General Gates, your servant;' and Kingston, 'how do you do?' and a shake of the hand." Having read to Gates this communication from Burgoyne, Wilkinson says: "To my utter astonishment, General Gates put his hand to his side pocket, pulled out a paper, and presented it to Kingston, observing: 'There, sir, are the terms on which General Burgoyne must surrender.' The major appeared thunderstruck, but read the paper, whilst the old chief surveyed him attentively through his spectacles." We are informed that he at first declined to take back to Burgoyne the terms of Gates, but finally thought better of it and consented to do so upon the cogent reason given by Gates, "that as he had brought the message he ought to take back the answer." Kingston was commissioned lieutenant- colonel of the Eighty-sixth Foot, September 30, 1779 ! was subsequently appointed lieutenant-governor of Demarara, and was in command when that island was surrendered to the French, February 3, 1782. He was promoted to a colonelcy in the army on the twentieth of the following November, and served for seven years as a commissioner on the claims of loyalists in the American war. He was made a major-general, October 12, 1793, but his name does not appear on the list of the following year. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, pp. 299- 313; The Remembrancer of Public Events, vol. 14, p. 333; The Loyalists of America and their Times (Ryerson), Toronto, 1880, vol. 2, pp. 166-182. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 307 to you from Gen Burgoyne, that after having fought you twice, he has waited some days in his present situation determined to try a third conflict against any force you could bring to attack him; he is apprized of the superiority of your numbers, and the disposition of your troops to impede his supplies and render his retreat a scene of carnage on both sides. In this situation he is impelled by humanity and thinks himself justified by established principles and precedent of state and of war, to spare the lives of brave men upon honourable terms. Should Major General Gates be inclined to treat upon that idea, Gen Burgoyne would propose a cessation of arms during the time necessary to communicate the preliminary terms, by which in any extremity he and his army mean to abide." It was then generally believed by their not attacking us, and our speedy want of provisions, that terms were the only resource left us. What could be thought of else in our truly distressed situation? They, of course, would not risque an action in such circumstances, which was the only hope left us, as by their declining it, we must in consequence, fall a prey to want and hunger which then stared us fully in the face. On the return of the flag. Gen Gates sent in the following propositions, to which I shall insert Gen Burgoynes replys and those which it was impossible for us to accept, were our situation ever so desperate, are in my opinion most spiritedly answered by General Burgoyne. 308 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. General Gates' Propositions. 1. "Gen Burgoyne's army being exceedingly reduced by repeated defeats, by desertion, sickness &c. &c. their provisions exhausted, their military stores tents and baggage taken or destroyed, their retreat cut off and their camp invested, they can only be allowed to surrender prisoners of war." Reply, "Lieut General Burgoyne's, army however reduced, will never admit that their retreat is cut off, while they have arms in their hands." 2. "The officers and soldiers may keep their baggage belonging to them, the Generals of the United States, never permit individuals to be pillaged" 3. "The troops under his excellency Gen Burgoyne will be conducted by the most convenient route to New England, marching by easy marches and sufficiently provided for by the way." 4. "The officers will be admitted on parole, may wear their side arms, and will be treated with the liberality customary in Europe, so long as they, by proper behaviour continue to deserve it; but those who are apprehended having broke their parole (as some British officers have done) must expect to be close confined" - Reply, "There being no officers in this army under or capable of being under, the description of breaking parole, this article needs no answer." 5. "All public stores. Artillery, Arms, amunition, carriages horses &c must be delivered to commissaries appointed to receive them." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 309 Reply "All public stores may be delivered, arms excepted." 6. "These terms being agreed to and signed, the troops under his excellency Gen Burgoyne's command may be drawn up in their encampment, when they will be ordered to ground their arms and may thereupon be marched to the river side to be passed over on their way towards Bennington" Reply "This article inadmissible in any extremity. Sooner than this army will consent to ground their arms in their encampment, they will rush on the enemy determined to take no quarter" Signed J Burgoyne 7. "A cessation of arms to continue until sun set to receive general Burgoynes answer" Signed- Horatio Gates CAMP at SARATOGA. October 14th 1777. These propositions being laid before the council of war consisting of all the field officers of the army and captains commanding corps - for deaths had reduced us so much - we deemed unhonourable to be accepted. This gave the greatest satisfaction possible to Gen Burgoyne, who wished, if possible, to avoid any terms; still persisting [in] a faint glim- 31O Lieutenant Digbys Journal. mering of hope, from either the arrival of Gen Clinton or some other unforseen and providential manner, of our being extricated from the many difficulties that then surrounded us. At night another council of war was called, and terms as high on our side sent, supposing a medium would be struck. 15th. A cessation of arms was agreed upon till 2 o'clock at Noon, during which we walked out of our lines into the plain by the river and between both armies, when near the period of the cessation being over, we stood to our works, more watchful of a surprise than at any other time. Col. Sutherland219 near ---------------- 219 Nicholas Sutherland was commissioned an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, June 14, 1755, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the Seventy-seventh Foot, January 8, 1757, and of captain-lieutenant, September 15, 1758, at which time his regiment was in America, He took part in the siege, which resulted in the surrender of Fort Du Quesne, and the next year was in an expedition against the Cherokees, in which he was wounded. He became a captain, December 31, 1761, and the next year took part in an expedition against Martinico and Havana. He was on half pay from 1763 till March 14, 1765, when he entered the Twenty-first Foot, then about to embark for America, as captain. He became major in this regiment by purchase, February 21, 1772, and returned shortly after to England, where the Twenty-first was stationed until the spring of 1776, when it was ordered again to America, and after General Nesbit's death he was advanced, November 5, 1776, to that officer's place of lieutenant-colonel. In the negotiations for the surrender of Burgoyne, he was an important figure, as will be seen from the following : The terms had been practically arranged, October fifteenth, and Captain Craig, at half-past ten o'clock, had written to Wilkinson, the aid-de- camp of Gates, that they had received Burgoyne's approbation and concurrence. Owing to the news of Clinton's Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 311 two returned with the flag, and brought accounts that General Gates seemed almost willing to come into our terms; but soon after a report circulated that General Clinton was coming up the river, tho at a great distance, which Burgoyne eagerly catched at, and to make it stronger, Gates so easily complying with our proposals confirmed it to him; on which he expressed his desire to withdraw the treaty if possible, but luckily for the army, he was overruled ---------------- advance, before alluded to, Burgoyne desired to break the agreement, which only required the signatures of the party to complete it. The next day Gates, finding that Burgoyne was delaying to complete the agreement, finally gave him two hours to decide in, at the expiration of which time hostilities were to recommence. Says Wilkinson: "The two hours had elapsed by a quarter, and an aid-de-camp from the general had been with me to know how matters progressed. Soon after I perceived Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland opposite to me and beckoned him to cross the creek; on approaching me he observed: 'Well, our business will be knocked in the head after all.' I enquired why? He said: 'The officers had got the devil in their heads and could not agree.' I replied gaily: 'I am sorry for it, as you will not only lose your fusee* but your whole baggage' He expressed much sorrow, but said he could not help it. At this moment I recollected the letter Captain Craig had written me the night before and taking it from my pocket I read it to the colonel, who declared he had not been privy to it; and added, with evident anxiety: 'Will you give me that letter? 'I answered in the negative, and observed: 'I should hold it as a testimony of the good faith of a British commander.' He hastily replied: 'Spare me that letter, sir, and I pledge you my honour I will return it in fifteen minutes.' I penetrated the motive and willingly handed it to him; he sprang off with it, and directing his course to the British camp, ran ---------------- * Which he had owned thirty-five years and had desired me to except from the surrendered arms and save for him as she was a favorite piece. 312 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. in opinion, as the report of Clinton was entirely groundless, and we had then but two days provisions. In the morning our money chest was distributed among the army : still, the general delayed signing the treaty and nothing was done; cannonading and small arms commenced afresh, upon the report of the treaty being broke up, but after many flags passing and repassing, the terms were at last mutually agreed to, and to be signed that evening by both generals viz. - ARTICLES OF CONVENTION220 BETWEEN LIEUT GENERAL BURGOYNE AND MAJOR GENERAL GATES. I. The troops under Lieutenant General Burgoyne to march out of their camp with the honours of war, ---------------- as far as I could see him. In the meantime I received a peremptory message from the general to break off the treaty if the convention was not immediately ratified. I informed him by the messenger that I was doing the best I could for him and would see him in half an hour. Colonel Sutherland was punctual to his promise and returned with Captain Craig, who delivered me the convention signed by General Burgoyne. I then returned to head-quarters, after eight hours' absence, and presented to General Gates the important document that made the British army conventional prisoners to the United States." Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland returned to England on parole several months after the surrender, and died there July 18, 1781. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, p. 316, et seq; Historical Record of the Twenty-first Foot, p. 25, et seq.; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 17. 220 This document was originally headed Articles of Capitulation, but the word capitulation was objected to by Burgoyne and convention substituted therefor, to save in some Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 313 and the Artillery out of the entrenchments to the verge of the river, where the old fort stood, where the arms and artillery are to be left - the arms to be piled by word of command by their own officers. 2. A free passage to be granted to the army under Lieut Gen Burgoyne to Great Britain, on condition ---------------- measure his wounded pride. This occasioned a laugh among some of his critics, as it was so much in accord with the acts of those at this time in authority, who in all their doings laid great stress upon preserving the national dignity. The following, among many of a like strain, written after the surrender, and printed in a London journal, well illustrates the manner in which the opponents of the government viewed the course of those who were managing the war: "ETIQUETTE." What though America doth pour Her millions to Britannia's store, (Quoth Granville) that won't do; for yet, Though it risk all and nothing get, Taxation is the etiquette. The tea destroy'd; the offer made, That all the loss should be repaid; North asks not justice, nor the debt, But he must have the etiquette. At Bunker's Hill the cause was tried; The earth with British blood was dy'd; Our army, though 'twas soundly beat (We hear) bore off the etiquette. The bond dissolv'd, the people rose; Their rulers from themselves they chose , Their Congress then at nought was set; Its name was not the etiquette. Though 'twere to stop the tide of blood. Their titles must not be allow'd - (Not to the chiefs of armies met,) "One" Arnold was the etiquette. The Yankees at Long Island found That they were nearly run aground; Howe let them 'scape when so beset -- He will explain that etiquette. 40 314 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of not serving again in North America during the present contest; and the port of Boston is assigned for the entry of transports to receive the troops whenever general How shall so order. 3. Should any chartel take place by which the army under Lieut Gen Burgoyne, or any part of it may be exchanged, the foregoing article to be void, as far as such exchange shall be made. 4. The army under Lieut general Burgoyne to march to Massachusets bay by the easiest, most convenient and expeditious route, and to be quartered in, near, or as convenient as possible to Boston, ---------------- His aides-de-camp to Britain boast Of battles Yankee never lost; But they are won in the Gazette - That saves the nation's etiquette. Clinton, his injured honour saw; Swore he'd be tried by martial law, And kick Germaine whene'er they met; A riband saved that etiquette. Though records speak Germaine's disgrace, To quote them to him face to face, (The Commons now are si honnκte,) They voted not the etiquette. Of Saratoga's dreadful plain - An army ruin'd - why complain ? To pile their arms as they were let, Sure they came off with etiquette. Cries Burgoyne, 'They may be reliev'd; That army still may be retriev'd. To see the King, if I be let,' 'No Sir! 'Tis not the etiquette.' God save the King ! and should he choose His people's confidence to lose, What matters it ? They'll not forget To serve him still through etiquette. Vide Journal of the Reign of George the Third (Walpole), London, 1859, vol. 2, p. 275, et seq. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 315 that the march of the troops may not be delayed, when transports arrive to receive them. 5. The troops to be supplied on their march and during their being in quarters, with provisions by general Gates' orders; at the same rate of rations as the troops of his own army; and if possible, the officer's horses and cattle to be supplied with forage at the usual rate. 6. All officers to retain their carriages, batt horses and other cattle, and no baggage to be molested or searched - Lieut General Burgoyne giving his honour that there are no public stores secreted therein : major general Gates will of course take the necessary measures for the due performance of this article, Should any carriages be wanted during the march for the transportation of officer's baggage, they are, if possible, to be supplied by the country at the usual rates. 7. Upon the march and during the time the army shall remain in quarters in the Massachusets Bay, the officers are not, as far as circumstances will admit, to be separated from their men; the officers to be quartered according to their rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their men for roll calling and other necessary purposes of regularity. 8. All corps whatever of General Burgoyne's army, whether composed of sailor's, battow-men, artificers, drivers, independent companies and followers of the army of whatever country, shall be included in the fullest sense and utmost extent of the above articles. 316 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. and comprehended in every respect as British subjects. 9. All Canadians and persons belonging to the Canadian establishment, consisting of sailors, battow men, artificers, drivers, independent companies and any other followers of the army, who come under no particular description, are to be permitted to return there; they are to be conducted immediately by the shortest route to the first British post on. Lake George, and are to be supplied with provisions in the same manner as the other troops and are to be bound by the same condition of not serving during the present contest in North America. 10. Passports to be immediately granted for three officers not exceeding the rank of captains, who shall be appointed by Lieut Gen Burgoyne to carry dispatches to Sir Willm Howe, Sir Guy Carlton and to Great Britain by the way of New York; and Major Gen Gates engages the public faith that these dispatches shall not be opened. These officers are to set out immediately after receiving their dispatches, and are to travel the shortest route and in the most expeditious manner. 11. During the stay of the troops in Massachusets Bay, the officers are to be admitted on Parole, and are to be permitted to wear their side arms. 12. Should the army under Lieut General Burgoyne find it necessary to send for their clothing and other baggage to Canada, they are to be permitted to do Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 317 it in the most convenient manner, and the necessary passports granted for that purpose. 13. These articles are to be mutually signed and ex- changed tomorrow morning at nine. of the clock, and the troops under Lieut Gen. Burgoyne are to march out of their entrenchments at 3 o'clock this afternoon. CAMP AT SARATOGA, 17th October 1777 Signed-- Horatio Gates Major General. In place of marching from our encampment that evening as expressed in the convention, it was deferred till the next morning. In the mean time, we made preparations for so long a march - about 200 miles - and the wet, rainy season just coming on. I had not destroyed all my baggage, tho' indeed most of it was gone at the general conflagration; but as to the horses who outlived our late scene of every imaginable distress, they exhibited a most wretched picture of poverty and want, made up of nothing but skin and bone, and it may naturally be supposed, rather unfit for such a journey. 17 A day famous in the annals of America221 Gen Burgoyne desired a meeting of all the officers early that morning, at which he entered into a detail ---------------- 221 Verily, as Digby remarks, the seventeenth of October was a day memorable in the annals of America; for the 318 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of his manner of acting since he had the honour of commanding the army; but he was too full to speak; heaven only could tell his feelings at the ---------------- surrender of Burgoyne's army has been regarded by historians from that day to this as the turning point in that conflict which freed a people from thraldom to aristocracy and made possible a true republic. Under date of December 2, 1777, Walpole says: "At night came an express from General Carleton, informing that he had learnt by deserters, and believed, that the Provincials had taken Burgoyne and his whole army prisoners. The King fell into agonies on hearing this account, but the next morning, at his levee to disguise his concern, affected to laugh and to be so indecently merry, that Lord North endeavoured to stop him;'' and under date of the fifteenth, thirteen days later, he records the reception of the official account from the hands of Captain Craig. Upon this a public fast was appointed, which stirred up the wits all over the kingdom. As an example Walpole gives us the following effusion upon the several generals who conducted the war in America : "First General Gage commenced the war in vain; Next General Howe continued the campaign, Then General Burgoyne took the field, and last, Our forlorn hope depends on General Fast." Walpole also wrote, under date of February 27, 1778: "The Fast was observed - a ridiculous solemnity, as the nation was to beg a blessing on their arms, when the war was at an end, or at least suspended for sixteen months if the Americans pleased." The following was a "REFLECTION ON THE FAST." Psalm xxvi, v. 6. "With cruel hearts and bloody hands, The Ministry were stain'd, A Fast was publish'd thro' these lands That they might all be clean'd. But, oh ! what blunders, time affords. Thro' want of grace and sense, They wash'd them in - a form of words Instead of Innocence." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 319 time. He dwelled much on his orders to make the wished for junction with General Clinton, and as to how his proceedings had turned out, we must (he said), be as good judges as himself. He then read over the Articles of Convention, and informed us the terms were even easier than we could have expected from our situation, and concluded with assuring us, he never would have accepted any terms, had we provisions enough, or the least hopes of our extricating ourselves any other way. About 10 o'clock, we marched out, according to treaty, with drums beating & the honours of war, but the drums seemed to ---------------- The London Morning Post had the following : "OUR COMMANDERS Nov. 2, '77. Gage nothing did and went to pot; Howe lost one town and other got; Guy nothing lost and nothing won, Dunmore was homeward forced to run, Clinton was beat, and got a garter. And bouncing Burgoyne catch'd a Tartar, Thus all we gain for millions spent Is to be laughed at, and repent." But the following reads almost like an American production. It is entitled : "THE HALCYON DAYS OF OLD ENGLAND. A BALLAD. What honours were gaining by taking their forts. Destroying batteaux and blocking up ports; Burgoyne would have worked them - but for a mishap. By Gates and one Arnold he's caught in a trap. Sing tantarara, etc. But Howe was more cautious and prudent by far. He sailed with his fleet up the great Delaware. All summer he struggled and strove to undo them But the plague of it was that he could not get to them." Vide Journal of the Reign of George the Third, vol. 2, pp. 76, 170, 186, 214, et passim. 320 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. have lost their former inspiriting sounds, and though we beat the Grenadiers march, which not long before was so animating, yet then it seemed by its last feeble effort, as if almost ashamed to be heard on such an occasion. As to my own feelings, I can- not express them. Tears (though unmanly) forced their way, and if alone, I could have burst to give myself vent. I never shall forget the appearance of their troops on our marching past them; a dead silence universally reigned through their numerous columns, and even then, they seemed struck with our situation and dare scarce lift up their eyes to view British Troops in such a situation. I must say their decent behaviour during the time, (to us so greatly fallen) meritted the utmost approbation and praise.222 The meeting between Burgoyne and Gates was well ---------------- 222 Walpole sarcastically observes, while reflecting upon the surrender and the word "dictated," as applied to its terms by Burgoyne: "The terms were singularly gentle and the Provincials, while the prisoners deposited their arms, kept out of sight, not to insult their disgrace." The grief of the British soldiers was as profound as the joy of the Americans. Every rhymester in the land was ready to join in the chorus, no matter how rough his voice might be, and many of the strains sound strangely to modern ears. As an example, we quote from a volume of the poems of Rev. Wheeler Case, printed in 1778, and thought worthy of a reprint in 1852 : "The hero Gates appears in sight, His troops are clothed in armor bright; They all as one their banners spread, With Death or Victory on their head. "O horrid place! Oh dreadful gloom! I mourn for want of elbow room. My tawny soldiers from me fled, Have now returned to scalp my head." Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 321 worth seeing. He paid Burgoyne almost as much respect as if he was the conqueror, indeed, his noble air, tho prisoner, seemed to command attention and respect from every person. A party of Light dragoons were ordered as his guard, rather to protect his per- son from insults than any other cause. Thus ended all our hopes of victory, honour, glory &c &c &c Thus was Burgoyne's Army sacrificed to either the absurd opinions of a blundering ministerial power; the stupid inaction of a general, who, from his lethargic disposition, neglected every step he might have taken to assist their operations,223 or lastly, ---------------- 223 The failure of General Howe to co-operate with Burgoyne excited widespread astonishment and made him, as well as his brother, the earl, very unpopular, as will be seen from the following letter written from New York to England, December 10, 1777: " If you was in this town you would be surprised to find the Howes so unpopular; they have been so here all this campaign. The total loss of General Burgoyne's army can only be imputed to them. - To possess the lakes and the North river, and by that means to separate the northern and southern colony, seems to have been the expectation of the King, Ministers, Parliament and Nation. Had General Howe gone up the North River, instead of acting to the southward that line of separation would have been formed in July. General Burgoyne's army would have been saved, and both armies, conjunctly or separately, might have acted against New England, which would have been striking at the heart of the rebellion. - General Howe, in his retreat from the Jerseys, in his embarkation, in his stay aboard the transports before he sailed, in his voyage to the mouth of the Delaware, where he played at bopeep with the rebels, and in his circumbendibus to Chesapeak Bay, expended nearly three months of the finest time of the campaign; and all this to go out of his way, to desert his real business, and to leave Burgoyne with 6,000 regulars to fall a 41 322 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. perhaps, his own misconduct in penetrating so far, as to be unable to return, and tho I must own my ---------------- sacrifice." On his return to England he was assailed on every side and endeavored to meet his critics by a defense in which he asserted that he had received no positive orders to co-operate with Burgoyne. This, however, was not deemed sufficient, but it is now known, that by the careless- ness of Lord George Germaine, the minister of George the Third, for American affairs, the orders intended for Howe were not forwarded to him, as will be seen from the following, taken from the Life of the Earl of Shelburne: "The inconsistent orders given to Generals Howe and Burgoyne, could not be accounted for except in a way which it must be difficult for any person who is not conversant with the negligence of office to comprehend. Among many singularities, he had a particular aversion to being put out of his way on any occasion; he had fixed to go into Kent or Northamptonshire at a particular hour, and to call on his way at his office to sign the despatches, all of which had been settled, to both these Generals. By some mistake, those to General Howe were not fair copied, and upon his growing impatient at it, the office, which was a very idle one, promised to send it to the country after him, while they dispatched the others to General Burgoyne, expecting that the others could be expedited before the packet sailed with the first, which, however, by some mistake sailed without them, and the wind detained the vessel which was ordered to carry the rest. Hence came General Burgoyne's defeat, the French declaration and the loss of thirteen colonies. It might appear incredible if our own Secretary and the most respectable persons in office had not assured me of the fact; what corroborates it is that it could be accounted for in no other way. It requires as much experience in business to comprehend the very trifling causes which have produced the greatest events, as it does strength of reason to develope the design." Vide A View of the Evidence relating to the conduct of the American War under Sir William Howe, Lord Viscount Howe and General Burgoyne, London, 1779, p. 82, et seq.; Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, vol. I, p. 358, et seq. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 323 partiality to him is great, yet if he or the army under his command are guilty, let them suffer to the utmost extent, and by an unlimited punishment, in part blot out and erase if possible, the crime charged to their account. No doubt the reader has seen general Burgoyne's letter dated Albany 20th October 1777 to Lord George Germain, in which he gives the fullest account of the army under his command, being reduced so much by repeated distresses and unsuccessful attempts to enter into a convention with Major General Gates commanding the Continental army on the 17th October at Saratoga. He there gives his reasons for acting on every occasion in the most particular manner, which I hope, and sincerely wish, will fully acquit him to the world of any censure the misfortunes of his army might (as man- kind in general are apt to condemn the unsuccessful) throw on him. The reader may also, with the greatest show of reason, imagine it a presumption in me not to copy his journal for that time and destroy my own, admitting of a comparison little in my favour; but let him recollect my first design in put- ting the above passages to paper, it was as expressed in my preface, for the eye of a friend who, I flattered myself, - for we are by nature vain, - would receive as much satisfaction from the manner I have expressed my thoughts and feelings at the different times, of material changes and alterations in our affairs, (and there has been many) as the bare recital 324 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. of facts, which are so well known at present to the world. RETURN OF THE KILLED AND WOUNDED & PRISONERS DURING THE CAMPAIGN 1777- Return of the Killed, wounded and prisoners of the British troops under the Command of his excellency Lieut. General Burgoyne in the course of the Campaign 1777 - (I have not attempted to correct errors in this table - J. P. B.) BRITISH OFFICERS KILLED, WOUNDED AND PRISONERS DURING THE CAMPAIGN 1777 Royal regiment of Artillery. Killed, Captain Jones224 & 2d Lieut. Clieland.225 ----------- 224 Thomas Jones entered the Military Academy at Woolwich as a cadet, March 18, 1755, and, on December twenty- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 325 Wounded. Captains Bloomfield,226 Green, 31st regt - aid-de-camp, to Major Gen Phillips - Lieutenants Howarth,227 Smith,228 Volunteer Sutton.229 ---------------- seventh following, was commissioned lieutenant-fireworker; second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, April 2, 1757; first lieutenant, January 1, 1759; captain-lieutenant, October 23, 1761, and captain, January 1, 1771. He participated in the siege of Belleisle in 1761, and embarked for America in 1773. When Arnold and Montgomery made their attack upon Quebec, Captain Jones was active in opposing them, and at the conclusion of the campaign of '76 returned with Burgoyne to England, where he was married during the winter. He returned in June of the next year, and was killed at the battle of Freeman's Farm, September nineteenth. His intrepidity and ability were frequently spoken of by writers of the time. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; History Royal Artillery, vol. I, pp. 229, 304, 135; A State of the Expedition, p. 79, Appendix 49, and Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. 50, 98, 109, 164, et passim. 225 Molesworth Clieland received his commission of second lieutenant in the First Battalion Royal Artillery on March 15, 1771. The artillery formed a most important part of Burgoyne's army, and owing to its extent and the splendor of its equipment, caused much criticism among his enemies, who claimed that it was disproportionate to his infantry. It did however most effective service; but owing to the nature of the country, great labor was required in moving it, and the men in charge were subjected to severe toil and hardship. Lieutenant Clieland was the first officer of the artillery to fall. He was killed at Skenesborough on July sixth. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Journal of Occurrences, etc., p. 174. 226 Thomas Blomefield entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich on February 9, 1758, before he had completed his fourteenth year, and exhibited such remarkable talents as to secure a commission in the First Battalion of the Royal Artillery as lieutenant-fireworker on January 3, 1759. When only fifteen years of age, at the 326 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. Prisoners, Major Williams, Lieutenants Howarth and York.230 ---------------- bombardment of Havre de Grace by Admiral Rodney, he commanded a bomb vessel with ability. He was made second lieutenant, August 1, 1762, and participated in the capture of Martinique and Havana. He was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in the Second Battalion, May 28, 1766, and captain-lieutenant, January 29, 1773. Shortly after his arrival in Canada, on June 3, 1776, he was made major of brigade to Major-General Phillips. He performed most important service in the construction of floating batteries during the campaign of that year, and at the close of the campaign returned to England. In the spring of 1777 he returned to Canada and participated in Burgoyne's expedition. Madame Riedesel thus speaks of his wound: "One day I undertook the care of Major Plumpfield, adjutant of General Phillips, through both of whose cheeks a small musket ball had passed, shattering his teeth and grazing his tongue. He could hold nothing whatever in his mouth. The matter from the wound almost choked him, and he was unable to take any other nourishment, except a little broth, or something liquid. We had Rhine wine. I gave him a bottle of it, in hopes that the acidity of the wine would cleanse his wound. He kept some continually in his mouth; and that alone acted so beneficially, that he became cured, and I again acquired one more friend. Thus in the midst of my hours of care and suffering, I derived a joyful satisfaction, which made me very happy." He was among the paroled officers at Cambridge, and returned to England in the spring of 1779. His subsequent commissions in the Royal Artillery and army were as follows: Captain, January 19, 1780; major in the army, March 19, 1783, and in the artillery, September twenty-fifth of the same year; a lieutenant- colonel, December 5, 1793; colonel in the army, January 26, 1797, and in the artillery, November 12, 1800; a major-general, September 25, 1803, and colonel command- ant of the Ninth Battalion, June 1, 1806. He commanded the artillery at the siege of Copenhagen with great success, for which he received the thanks of Parliament and a Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 327 Battalion of Light Infantry consisting of 10 Companies Commanded by Earl Balcarres, 9th Company; Lieut Wright.231 20th Company; ---------------- baronetcy, which honor was conferred upon him, November 14, 1807. His last promotion was to the rank of lieutenant- general, July 25, 1810. His death took place at his home at Shooter's Hill, in Kent, August 24, 1822. Vide British Family Antiquity (Playfair), London, 181 1, vol. 7, p. 833, et seq.; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, in loco; British Army Lists, in loco; A State of the Expedition, p. 67; History of the Royal Artillery (Duncan), vol. I, pp. 174, 177, 379; vol. 2, pp. 158, 167; Letters and Journals of Madame Riedesel, p. 132. 227 Edward Howarth was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, on June 17, 1772, and was one of the most brilliant of that youthful band of officers who accompanied Burgoyne to America in 1776. He was wounded and taken prisoner at Saratoga in the final battle of the campaign. Concerning him Anburey relates the fol- lowing curious incident: "Your friend Howarth's wound, I hear, is in his knee; it is very singular, but he was prepossessed with an idea of being wounded, for when the orders came for the detachment's going out, he was playing picquet with me, and after reading the orders, and that his brigade of guns were to go, he said to me, 'God bless you A--- farewell, for I know not how it is, but I have a strange presentiment that I shall either be killed or wounded.' I was rather surprised at such an expression, as he is of a gay and cheerful disposition, and cannot but say, that during the little time I could bestow in reflection that day, I continually dwelt upon his remark, but he is now happily in a fair way of recovery." On July 7, 1779, Howarth was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in the artillery, and on December I, 1782, of captain-lieutenant and captain. He occupied the position of quartermaster for eleven years; namely, from April 4, 1783, to March 1, 1794, at which latter date he attained the army rank of major. On January 1, 1798, he 328 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 21at Company; 24th Company; ---------------- was promoted to the army rank of lieutenant-colonel and brevet-major-general; and July 16, 1799, was made a major in the artillery. He was further promoted to a lieutenant- colonelcy in the artillery, April 18, 1801; a colonelcy, December 29, 1805; major-general in the army, June 4, 1811; lieutenant-general in the army August 12, 1819, and colonel commanding in the artillery, August 6, 1821. General Howarth served under Wellington in the Peninsular war with great distinction, commanding the artillery as brigadier- general at the battles of Talavera, Busaco and Ferantes d'Onore, and for the ability he displayed, was in 1814, honored with the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Bath. In 1824, he was further rewarded with the Knight Grand- Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, a medal and two clasps. Owing to failing health he was obliged to vacate his command, and retiring to his country seat at Birnstead, Surrey, he died on March 5, 1827. He had been in almost constant service for over half a century. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; History of the Royal Artillery, vol. I, pp. 226, 381; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. xlviii, lvi. 228 William P. Smith became a cadet in Woolwich, April I, 1768, and a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, March 15, 1771. He was wounded in the battle of October 7, and was among the convention prisoners. He subsequently received the following promotions: First lieutenant, July 7, 1779; captain-lieutenant, February 28, 1782, and captain of the Sixth Company of the Second Battalion, May 24, 1790; major in the army, March 1, 1794, and in the artillery, April 25, 1796; lieutenant-colonel in the army, January I, 1798, and in the artillery, January 8, 1799. His last commission was that of colonel in the artillery, July 20, 1804. His death took place July 23, 1806. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; History of the Royal Artillery, vol. I, p. 181. 229 Of Volunteer Sutton we can find no particulars. He is mentioned by Lamb in his list of wounded officers, and we Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 329 27th Company; Wounded, Captn Craig. 62nd Company; Wounded, Lieut Jones.232 ---------------- may infer had seen military service. At the dawn of day on the sixth of July, General Fraser pursued Colonel Francis, and overtaking him, would have met with a disastrous defeat but for the timely arrival of Riedesel with his Germans. Sutton was wounded in this action. If he survived his wound, he must have returned to Canada, as he is nowhere again mentioned, and his name does not appear among the convention prisoners. 230 John H. York became a cadet at Woolwich, May 1, 1768, and a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, March 15, 1771. He was taken prisoner October seventh. At what time he was exchanged is unknown. He was promoted as follows, viz. : to the rank of first lieutenant, July 7, 1779; captain-lieutenant, April 6, 1782, and captain in the Third Company, Fourth Battalion, May 26, 1790; a major in the army, March 1, 1794, and in the artillery, December 9, 1796; a lieutenant-colonel in the army, January 1, 1798, and in the artillery, July 16, 1799. His last commission was that of colonel in the artillery, July 20, 1804, and he was shortly after, November 1, 1805, drowned on the South American coast. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; History of the Royal Artillery, vol. I, pp. 257, 315. 231 James Wright received his first commission as ensign in the Ninth Foot, March 23, 1764, while that regiment was doing service in Florida. In 1769 the Ninth returned home and was assigned to garrison duty in Ireland. He was commissioned a lieutenant, September 1, I77i,and accompanied his regiment to Canada in 1776, taking part in the campaign of that year. He was killed in the final battle at Saratoga. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Ninth Foot. 232 John Jones received his commission of ensign in the Sixty-second Foot on December 9, 1767, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, September 1, 1771. His regiment 42 330 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 29th Company; Killed, Lieut Douglass.233 Wounded, Lieut. Battersby.234 Prisoner, Ensign Johnston.235 31th Company; ---------------- arrived in Canada in the spring of 1776, and he, therefore, took part in the campaign of that year. He was wounded at Hubbardton in the action of July seventh, and his name disappears from the army lists after 1781. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Sixty-second Foot, 233 James Douglas was commissioned a lieutenant in the army on April 8, 1773, and received his appointment of ensign in the Twenty-ninth Foot on June 30, 1774. He was promoted to a lieutenancy in his regiment, February 27, 1776, and was wounded in the action of July seventh. He was being borne from the field after his wound, when a shot passed directly through his heart, killing him instantly. His place was filled by Ensign Dowling of the Forty-seventh Foot, on the fourteenth, by order of the commanding general. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 339; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 55. 234 James Battersby entered the Twenty-ninth Foot, February 2, 1770, as an ensign, at which time this regiment was stationed in Boston and won unpleasant notoriety in the "massacre" of the fifth of March following. He was promoted to a lieutenancy, December 16, 1773, and in February, 1776, embarked at Chatham with his regiment for the seat of war in America. He was wounded in the action of October seventh, and was one of the convention prisoners. He was promoted to a captaincy, February 16, 1778, while a prisoner. His name appears on the army lists for the last time in 1784. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-ninth Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 176. 235 William Johnson was commissioned an ensign in the Twenty-ninth Foot on March 29, 1776. Of his subsequent fate we know nothing. His name was borne on the army lists of 1780 for the last time. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 331 34th Company; Wounded, Capn Harris.346 53rd Company; Wounded, Major Earl Balcarres. Lieutenants Houghton & Cullen237 ---------------- 236 John Adolphus Harris entered the Thirty-fourth Foot under an ensign's commission, January 11, 1760, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, January 28, 1762. At this time the Thirty-fourth was in the West Indies, and Lieu- tenant Harris participated in the siege of Havana, and after the peace accompanied his regiment to Florida, where it remained until 1768, when it was assigned to garrison duty in Ireland. On November 28, 1771, he was promoted to a captaincy, and in 1776, the Thirty-fourth having been assigned to duty in America, he took part in the campaign of that year. He was wounded at Hubbardton in the action of July seventh. Anburey thus speaks of him in a letter home, dated July seventeenth: "I omitted to mention to you, that your old friend Captain H----, was wounded at the battle of Huberton, early in the action, when the grenadiers formed to support the light infantry. I could not pass by him as he lay under a tree, where he had scrambled upon his hands and knees, to protect him from the scattering shot, without going up to see what assistance could be afforded him, and learn if he was severely wounded. You who know his ready turn for wit, will not be surprised to hear, though in extreme agony, that with an arch look, and clapping his hand behind him, he told me, if I wanted to be satisfied, I must ask that, as the ball had entered at his hip, and passed through a certain part adjoining; he is now at Ticonderoga, and from the last account, is recovering fast." Owing to the severity of his wound, he was unable to take part in the subsequent movements of the campaign, and so was not among the captured officers. After his return to England, he became major of the Eighty-fourth Foot, or Royal High- land Emigrants, First Battalion, October 22, 1779, and lieu- tenant-colonel of the Sixtieth Foot, or Ro}-al Americans, January 16, 1788. He was afterward commissioned in the army as follows: Lieutenant-colonel, February 26, 1795; major-general, January 1, 1798; lieutenant-general, January I, 1805, and general, June 4, 1814. His name appears upon 332 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 20th Regmt. Killed, Lieutenants Lucas,238 Cooke,239 Obines.240 Wound. Lieut. Coll. Lynd,241 Captains Wemys,242 Doulin243 Stanley,244 Farquar;245 Lieuten- ---------------- the army lists for the last time in 1826. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Thirty fourth Foot; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 361, et seq. 237 William Cullen entered the Fifty-third Foot as an en- sign while that regiment was doing garrison duty in Ireland, August 31,1774, and was promoted to a lieutenancy, March 2, 1776, just before the departure of his regiment for America. He was wounded July seventh, in the action with the troops of Colonel Francis, and probably returned to Ticonderoga, as he was not among the captives of Burgoyne's army. The Fifty-third Regiment was stationed in Canada for several years after the close of the war, and during this time Lieutenant Cullen was commissioned a captain, his commission bearing date September 13, 1781. He seems to have become weary of his long sojourn in America and retired on a captain's half pay in 1784. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record, Fifty-third Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 238 Thomas Lucas entered the Twentieth Foot upon the eve of its embarkation for America, having received his commission of lieutenant therein, March 1, 1776. He passed through the perils of the campaign of that year to meet his death in the battle of Freeman's Farm, September nineteenth. 239 John Cooke entered the Twentieth Foot as an ensign while it was stationed in Ireland, March 14, 1774, and when his regiment was about to proceed to the relief of Carleton at Quebec, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, March 3, 1776. He ended his brief career at the battle of Freeman's Farm, on September nineteenth. 240 Hamlet Obins entered the British army as a cornet in the Third Light Dragoons, January 1, 1766, and was promoted to a lieutenancy in the Sixteenth Light Dragoons, Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 333 ants Dowlin,246 Ensign Connel.247 Prisoners; Stanley, Farquar. Capn Dowlin, Ensign Connel. ---------------- Burgoyne's regiment, February 18, 1769, in which regiment he remained until the breaking out of the war in America, when he was transferred to the infantry and commissioned a lieutenant in the Twentieth Foot, March 9, 1776. He fell in the battle of October seventh, which decided the fate of Burgoyne's army. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 176, 241 John Lind entered the Thirty-fourth Foot, December 12, 1755) a-rid the next year was with his regiment at Fort St. Phillip, where it sustained a siege. He was commissioned a captain, January 12, 1760, and took part in the expedition against Belleisle during that year. In 1762 he participated in the expedition against the Spanish West Indies,- and at the successful close of the war accompanied his regiment to Florida, where he remained until 1768, when his regiment was ordered home and went into garrison in Ireland. On November 28, 1771, he was made major of his regiment, and January 16, 1776, was transferred to the Twentieth Foot and promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In the spring of that year he accompanied his regiment to America and took part in the campaign under Carleton. The next year he followed the fortunes of Burgoyne to the battle of Freeman's Farm, where he was wounded, but remained with his command and was among the surrendered officers at Saratoga a few weeks later. He was raised to the army rank of colonel, November 20, 1782, and was made a major- general, October 12, 1793. He died May 1, 1795. Vide Historical Record of the Thirty-fourth Foot; do. Twentieth Foot; British Army Lists, in loco; Gentleman's Magazine for 1795. 242 Francis Weymis was commissioned a lieutenant in the Twentieth Foot, September 26, 1757, at which time his regiment formed part of the expedition under Lieutenant-Gen- eral Sir John Mordant, against Rochfort, which resulted in the capture and destruction of the fortifications on the Isle 334 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 21th Regmt; Killed, Lieutenants Curray,248 McKinzy,249 Turnbull,250 Robertson.251 Wounded, Lieut Rutherford;252 Prisoner, Lieut Rutherford, ---------------- d'Aix, on the western coast of France. The French, in the summer of 1759, sent an army into Germany with which country England was in alliance, and the regiment to which Lieutenant Weymis belonged was ordered to Germany to form part of the forces under Prince Ferdinand, of Bruns- wick. The service performed by the British troops in the German service was severe, and when the Twentieth returned to England in 1763, it received the thanks of Parliament for its conduct. From this date until 1769, a period of six years, Lieutenant Weymis was with his regiment at Gibraltar. On the 25th of May, 1772, he was promoted to the regimental and army rank of captain. After the campaign in America of 1776, Lieutenant Weymis passed the following winter at the Isle aux Noix, and was wounded in the battle of the nineteenth of September. He was among the convention prisoners, and upon his return home at the close of the war was promoted to the rank of major, March 19, 1783. His name disappears from the army lists after 1787. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twentieth Foot, pp. 15-23; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 243 Richard Dowling first appears on the army lists as adjutant of the Twentieth Foot, January 8, 1768, while that regiment was doing garrison duty at Gibraltar, where it remained until 1774, when it proceeded to Ireland, and was there stationed until the spring of '76. Adjutant Dow- ling was commissioned a captain in his regiment, July 7, 1775, and accompanied it to America the following spring. He was wounded in the battle of September nineteenth, and taken prisoner, from which time he disappears from view. His name continued upon the army lists until April 1, 1780, when his place was filled by Thomas Storey. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twentieth Foot, pp. 15-23; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 176. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 335 24th Regmt : Killed, Lieut. Col. Frazier, Major Grant. Wounded, Major Agnew,253 Captains Blake,254 Strangways,255 Lieut. Doyle.256 ---------------- 244 John Stanly entered the Twentieth Foot as a lieutenant, September 7, I/72, while the regiment was stationed at Gibraltar. He was promoted to a captaincy about the time of its departure for America, March 9, 1776. He was wounded and taken prisoner at Freeman's Farm, and his name appears for the last time on the army lists in 1783. 245 William Farquar was commissioned a lieutenant in the Forty-seventh Foot, September 25, 1759, after that regiment's brilliant service in the siege and capture of Louisbourg and the fall of Quebec. In 1763 he entered upon half pay, but re-entered the service, and obtained a lieutenancy, May 3, 1765, in the Fifty-sixth Foot, which was at that time on duty at Gibraltar. He received a captain's commission in the Twentieth Foot, May 13, 1776. He was wounded and taken prisoner in the battle of September nineteenth. At what time he was exchanged we are not informed. He was promoted to a majority in the army, March 19, 1783. His name disappears from the army lists after 1794. Vide Historical Record Forty- seventh Foot; do. Fifty-sixth Foot; British Army Lists, in loco. 246 James Dowling was first commissioned an ensign in the Forty-seventh Regiment, June 18, 1775, the day after the battle of Bunker Hill, in which the Forty-seventh was engaged. He accompanied his regiment to Canada in the spring of the next year. Lieutenant Douglass of the Twenty-ninth Foot having been killed in the action of July seventh, Burgoyne promoted Ensign Dowling to the vacant lieutenancy, July 14, 1777. He was wounded in the performance of his duty, October seventh, and seems to have escaped capture thereby. His name disappears from the army lists after 1787. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 55; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 176. 336 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 47th Regmt; Killed, Lieuts Reynels,257 Harvey,258 Stewart,259 Ensigns Taylor,260 Phillips,261 Young,262 Adjutant Fitzgerald.263 Wounded; Lieut. Colo. Ans- ---------------- 247 Morgan Connel was commissioned an ensign in the Twentieth Foot, April 6, 1776. He was wounded in the battle of October seventh and taken a prisoner. We have no further account of him. 248 Samuel Currie received his first commission in the British army, which was that of a second lieutenant in the Twenty-first Foot, on March 14, 1766. At this date his regiment was stationed in Western Florida, and remained there until 1770, when it was ordered to Canada, and, on February 21, 1772, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. Shortly after he returned to England, where the Twenty-first was in garrison until the spring of '76, when Lieutenant Currie accompanied it to Quebec, and shortly after his arrival in Canada, viz., on July 4, 1776, he received the appointment of assistant commissary of General Gordon's brigade. He lost his life in the battle of September nineteenth. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-first Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 249 Kenneth Mackenzie entered the British military service as an ensign in the Thirty-third Foot, August 26, 1767, and was promoted to a lieutenancy, February 27, 1771. On August 16, 1775, he was transferred to the Twenty-first Foot, and the following spring accompanied his regiment to America. He was made a first lieutenant on May 7, 1776, and participated in the campaign of that year. He ended his life in the performance of a soldier's duty on the battle- field of September nineteenth. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Thirty-third Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 250 George Turnbull received his commission of second lieutenant in the Twenty-first Foot on May 3, 1776, and was probably one of those youthful officers, of which there were Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 337 truther264 Major Harnage,265 Captain Bunbury,266 Ensigns, Blackee,267 Harvey.268 Prisoners : Lieut. Naylor,269 Ensign De Antroch.270 ---------------- so many in Burgoyne's army, who lost their lives in the disastrous campaign of 1777. He was killed October seventh near Stillwater. 251 John James Roberton entered the British army as a second lieutenant of Royal Engineers, July 13, 1774. He was attached to the right wing of the army by an order of June 27, 1777, his duty being to strengthen the right of the camp under the direction of Brigadiers Powell and Hamilton. The last mention made of him in Burgoyne's Orderly Book is on September seventh, when he was assigned to the duty of repairing the roads between the camp at Duer's House and Fort Edward. On the nineteenth he was killed. 252 Richard Rutherford entered the Twenty-first Foot as a second lieutenant, February 26, 1776. He was wounded in the battle of September nineteenth, and as his name is dropped from the army list of 1779, we may infer that he did not recover from his wounds. 253 William Agnew was commissioned a lieutenant in the Twenty-fourth Foot, September 3, 1756, and a captain- lieutenant. May 15, 1763. Having served in Germany, his regiment was transferred to Gibraltar, and he subsequently accompanied it to America in the spring of 1776. He was made major of the Twenty-fourth, July 14, 1777, in place of Major Grant, who was killed on the seventh of that month. He was wounded in the battle of Freeman's Farm, September nineteenth. He became lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, February 15, 1782, but his name is not borne upon the lists of the next year. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-fourth Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 254 John Blake was made an ensign of the Twenty-fourth Foot, May 23, 1761, and lieutenant, June 12, 1766. He was promoted to a captaincy, July 7, 1775- He was 43 338 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. Engineers, Prisoner, Lieut. Dunford.271 Foot Guards : Killed, Sir Francis Clark, aid-de- camp to General Burgoyne, ---------------- wounded in the battle of the nineteenth of September, and did not rejoin his regiment, as his name is not in the list of surrendered officers. He appears at the head of the list of captains on the list of 1788. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-fourth Foot. 255 Hon. Stephen Digby Strangways was the second son of Stephen Fox and Elizabeth, the only daughter and heir of Thomas Strangways Horner, Esq. His father was raised to the peerage, March 11, 1741, as Lord Ilchester, of Ilchester, in Somersetshire, and subsequently, on June 5, 1756, was made Earl of Ilchester. Stephen Digby Strangways was born on December 3, 1751, and was the brother of Lady Harriet Acland. He entered the British military service as a cornet in the Royal Irish Dragoons, August 5, 1767, at the age of sixteen years; but, preferring the infantry service, exchanged into the Twenty-fourth Foot, and obtained a captaincy, April 17, 1769. He participated in the campaign of 1776, and was wounded in the battle of October seventh, but was with the army when it surrendered. He was made major of the Twentieth Foot, December 1, 1778, and attained no higher rank in the army. Vide Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, in loco; British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-fourth Foot; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, p. liv. 256 William Doyle was of an ancient Irish family noted in military annals. He entered the British infantry service as an ensign in the Twenty-fourth Foot, July 16, 1774, and was promoted to a lieutenancy, November 27, 1776, at the close of Carleton's successful campaign, in which he took part. He was among the officers who surrendered at Saratoga. He was raised to the rank of captain, July 31, 1787, major in the army, May 6, 1795, and lieutenant-colonel, July 22, 1797. He exchanged into the Sixty-second Foot, and was made its lieutenant-colonel, August 16, 1804. He was promoted to the army rank of colonel, October 30, 1805; major- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 339 16th Dragoons. Prisoner, Cornet Grant.272 N.B. I could not get an exact account of the loss of the German troops commanded by Gen Reldzel, ---------------- general, June 4, 1811, and lieutenant-general, August 12, 1819. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Burgoyne's Orderly- Book, p. 178. 257 Thomas Reynell was the son of Sir Thomas Reynell of Laleham, Middlesex county, and his wife, who so faithfully followed him through the terrible scenes of the campaign with Mrs. Riedesel, Acland and Harnage, until the fatal nineteenth of September, when he received his death wound, was Anne, the daughter of Samuel Coutty, Esq., of Kinsale. Mrs. Reynell was left with three small children, the oldest of whom was less than six years of age, and the youngest an infant. The oldest of these children, Richard Littleton Reynell, born April 30, 1772, settled in America, where he was married and lived until his death, September 4, 1829, at which time he enjoyed the title of baronet. His brother, Samuel, who was born October 31, 1775, and was hardly two years of age at his father's death, died unmarried, and the title descended to Thomas, the youngest brother. Thomas Reynell, the subject of this brief sketch, entered the British military service as an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, December 8, 1767, and was advanced to the rank of lieutenant, May 3, 1770. He sailed with his regiment from the Cove of Cork, April 8, 1776, and took part in the campaign of Carleton of that year. Anburey thus relates the incidents of his death: "You will readily allow that it is the highest test of affection in a woman, to share with her husband the toils and hardships of the campaign, especially such an one as the present. What a trial of fortitude the late action must have been, through a distressing interval of long suspence ! The ladies followed the route of the artillery and baggage, and when the action began, the Baroness Reidesel, Lady Harriet Ackland, and the wives of Major Harnage and Lieutenant Reynell, of the Sixty-second Regiment, entered a small uninhabited hut, but when the action became general and bloody, the Sur- 340 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. but believe it was pretty near equal to that of the British. ---------------- geons took possession of it, being the most convenient for the first care of the wounded; in this situation were these ladies four hours together, where the comfort they afforded each other was broke in upon, by Major Harnage being brought in to the surgeons deeply wounded! What a blow must the next intelligence be, that informed them that Lieutenant Reynell was killed! "Madame Riedesel gives us further particulars of the trying scenes of that day: "The wife of Major Harnage, a Madame Reynels the wife of the good lieutenant who the day previous had so kindly shared his broth with me, the wife of the commissary, and myself, were the only ladies who were with the army. We sat together bewailing our fate, when one came in, upon which they all began whispering, looking at the same time exceedingly sad. I noticed this, and also that they cast silent glances toward me. This awakened in my mind the dreadful thought that my husband had been killed. I shrieked aloud, but they assured me that this was not so, at the same time intimating to me by signs, that it was the lieu- tenant - the husband of our companion - who had met with misfortune. A moment after she was called out. Her husband was not yet dead, but a cannon ball had taken off his arm close to his shoulder. During the whole night we heard his moans, which sounded fearfully through the vaulted cellars. The poor man died toward morning." The cellar of the house in which these ladies found shelter during this dreadful night is still shown to the curious. Both Lamb and Digby are in error as to the regiment of which he was a member. Lamb makes him of the Twenty-fourth, and Digby of the Forty-seventh. Vide Burke's Peerage and Baronetage and British Army Lists, in loco; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 426; Letters and Journals of Madame Riedesel, p. 129, et seq. 258 Stephen Harvey became a lieutenant in the army, August 15, 1775, and was assigned to the Sixty-second Foot with a lieutenant's commission therein, February 29, 1776, and accompanied his regiment to America a few Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 341 Battalion of Grenadiers consisting of ten Companies Commanded by Major Ackland. 9th Company; Killed, Captain Stapleton,273 Lieu- ---------------- weeks later. Lamb thus records his fate: "Nor should the heroism of Lieutenant Hervey, of the 62nd regiment, a youth of sixteen, and nephew to the adjutant general of the same name be forgotten. It was characterized by all that is gallant in the military character. In the battle of the 19th September, he received several wounds, and was repeatedly ordered off the field by Lieutenant-Colonel Anstruther, but his heroic ardor would not allow him to quit the battle while he could stand, and See his brave comrades fighting beside him. A ball striking one of his legs, his removal became absolutely necessary, and while they were conveying him away, another wounded him mortally. In this situation, the surgeon recommended him to take a powerful dose of opium, to avoid a seven or eight hours' life of most exquisite torture. This he immediately consented to, and when the colonel entered the tent, with Major Harnage, who were both wounded, they asked whether he had any affairs they could settle for him? His reply was, that being a minor, every thing was already adjusted; but he had one request, which he retained just life enough to utter: 'Tell my uncle, I died like a soldier ------.'" Anburey gives the same relation and adds: "Where will you find in ancient Rome heroism superior!" Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 179. 259 Archibald Stuart was a lieutenant in the army under a commission dated October 10, 1759; but we have no further account of him until June 23, 1775, when we find him a lieutenant of Invalids at Hull. He was commissioned a lieutenant of the Sixty-second Foot on the eve of its departure to relieve Quebec. He fell in the battle of October seventh. 260 George Taylor received his commission as an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot on March 2, 1776, and was in the campaign of that year under Carleton. He was one of those 342 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. tenant Huggart;274 Wounded, Captain Swetman,275 Lieutenant Rowe,276 ---------------- youthful officers who had but just commenced a promising military career, which was brought to an untimely end during this campaign. He fell at the battle of Freeman's Farm, September nineteenth, in which battle the Sixty- second suffered severe loss. 261 Levinge Cosby Phillips was commissioned an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, December 20, 1776. Wilkinson thus alludes to him: "The morning after the action I visited the wounded prisoners who had not been dressed, and discovered a charming youth not more than 16 years old, lying among them; feeble, faint, pale and stiff in his gore; the delicacy of his aspect and the quality of his clothing attracted my attention, and on enquiry I found he was an Ensign Phillips; he told me he had fallen by a wound in his leg or thigh, and as he lay on the ground was shot through the body by an army follower, a murderous villain, who avowed the deed, but I forgot his name; the moans of this hapless youth moved me to tears; I raised him from the straw on which he lay, took him in my arms and removed him to a tent, where every comfort was provided and every attention paid to him, but his wounds were mortal, and he expired on the 21st; when his name was first mentioned to General Gates, he exclaimed, 'just Heaven ! he may be the nephew of my wife," but the fact was otherwise. Let those parents who are now training their children for the military profession; let those misguided patriots, who are inculcating principles of education subversive of the foundations of the republic, look on this picture of distress, taken from the life, of a youth in a strange land, far removed from friends and relations co-mingled with the dying and the dead, himself wounded, helpless and expiring with agony, and then should political considerations fail of effect, I hope, the feelings of affection and the obligations of humanity, may induce them to discountenance the pursuits of war, and save their off- spring from the seductions of the plume and the sword, for the more solid and useful avocations of civil life; by which alone peace and virtue and the republic can be preserved, Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 343 20th Company; Wounded, Major Ackland, twice; Prisoners, Major Ackland. ---------------- and perpetuated." Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Memoirs of My Own Times, vol. I, p. 246. 262 Henry Young received his commission of ensign in the Sixty-second Foot on November 21, 1776, and this was his first campaign. Of the several officers of tender years in Burgoyne's army, all connected with families of repute, whose lives were sacrificed by a wretched king and a besotted aristocracy in the support of a bad cause, we have touching notices in the journals of the survivors who participated in the great contest. Madame Riedesel thus refers to the last hours of Ensign Young: "A few days after our arrival, I heard plaintive moans in another room near me, and learned that they came from Young, - who was lying very low. I was the more interested in him, since a family of that name had shown me much courtesy during my sojourn in England. I tendered him my services, and sent him provisions and refreshments. He expressed a great desire to see his benefactress, as he called me. I went to him, and found him lying on a little straw, for he had lost his camp equipage. He was a young man, probably eighteen or nineteen years old; and, actually, the own nephew of the Mr. Young whom I had known, and the only son of his parents. It was only for this reason that he grieved; on account of his own sufferings he uttered no complaint. He had bled considerably, and they wished to take off his leg, but he could not bring his mind to it, and now mortification had set in. I sent him pillows and coverings, and my women servants a mattress. I redoubled my care of him, and visited him every day, for which I received from the sufferer a thousand blessings. Finally, they attempted the amputation of the limb, but it was too late, and he died a few days afterward. As he occupied an appartment close to mine, and the walls were very thin, I could hear his last groans through the partition of my room." Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Letters and Journals of Madame Riedesel, p. 114. 344 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 21st Company; Killed, Lieut Don;277 wounded Captn. Ramsey,278 Lieut. Fetherston;279 Prisoners, Captn Ramsey. ---------------- 263 George Tobias Fitzgerald was appointed adjutant of the Sixty-second Foot, October 26, 1775, and fell at Saratoga on October eleventh. 264 John Anstruther, of the noble Scotch family of Anstruther of Balcaskie, entered the Twenty-sixth Foot as ensign, May 2, 175 1, and was advanced to the rank of lieutenant in the Eighth Foot, August 28, 1756. The dates of his subsequent commissions are as follows: captain- lieutenant, September 25, 1761; captain, July 23, 1762; major, November 5, 1766; lieutenant-colonel in the Sixty-second Foot, October 21, 1773. He served in the campaign of 1776, and was wounded in the action of September nineteenth, and also in that of October seventh. After the surrender he was paroled, and returned home in 1778. He was promoted to a colonelcy in the army, November 17, 1780, but does not seem to have had a command after his return to England. His name disappears from the army lists after 1782. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Sixty-second Foot. 265 Henry Harnage was of an ancient English family, and, at the age of seventeen, received his first commission in the military service as an ensign in the Fourth Foot, June 7, 1756, and, on September twenty-ninth of the following year, was advanced to a lieutenancy therein. He was promoted, May 4, 1767, to a captaincy in the Sixty-second Foot, the second battalion of his regiment having received that number, and, December 21, 1775, to a majority. He was wounded in the battle of September nineteenth in the bowels, almost precisely in the same manner as was General Eraser; but, said the surgeon, "the general had eaten a hearty breakfast, by reason of which the intestines were distended, and the ball, --- had not gone, as in the case of Major Harnage, between the intestines, but through them." In spite of this severe wound, he was on the battle-field of October seventh, when he was again wounded. When the army retreated on the Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 345 24th Company; 47th Company; Prisoner, Lieutenant England.280 ---------------- next night, we are told by Madame Riedesel that "he dragged himself out of bed, that he might not remain in the hospital, which was left behind, protected by a flag of truce," and, although suffering from his wound, he did not forget to attend to the protection of her and her children. He was made a lieutenant-colonel in the army, November 17, 1780, while he was on the way to London with dispatches from Sir Henry Clinton, and was commissioned to the same rank in the One Hundred and Fourth Foot, March 18, 1782, in which year his name appears on the army lists for the last time. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Letters and Journals of Madame Riedesel, p. 114. 266 Abraham Bunbury was commissioned a lieutenant in the Sixty-second Foot, September 17, 1773, and received the rank of captain in the army, December 21, 1775- He does not appear to have had a command during Burgoyne's campaign. He was wounded in the battle of October seventh, and, as his name does not appear in the list of officers paroled at Cambridge, we may infer that he was taken with other wounded men back to Canada. His name appears upon the army lists for a number of years, but he held no command in the army. 267 Henry Blacker was commissioned as an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, December 21, 1775, and was acting in that capacity when the surrender at Saratoga took place, as his name so appears in the parole of Burgoyne's officers, December 13, 1777. He was, however, commissioned to a lieutenancy under the date of October eighth. He was promoted to a captaincy, October 26, 1786. 268 George Hervey was commissioned an ensign in the Sixty- second Foot, April 6, 1776, and was wounded in the action of September seventeenth. He, however, was in the battle of October seventh, and was among those who signed the parole after the surrender. 269 Wm. Pendred Naylor was commissioned an ensign in the Sixty-second Foot, March 12, 1774, and accompanied 44 346 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 62nd Company; Wounded, Captn. Shrimpton.281 29th Company; Wounded, Lieut Steel.282 ---------------- his regiment to America in the spring of 1776. After the close of the campaign of that year, Ensign Naylor was promoted to a lieutenancy, November 21, 1776, which rank he held when taken prisoner in the battle of October 7, 1777. His name continued to be borne upon the army lists until 1783, when it disappeared. 270 Henry Danterroche was made an ensign in the Sixty- second Foot on November 21, 1776, after the close of the campaign of that year. He was taken prisoner in the battle of October seventh, and does not appear to have subsequently advanced beyond the grade of ensign. His name appears upon the army lists for the last time in 1786. 271 Andrew Durnford was commissioned as an ensign in the Royal Engineers, July 28, 1769, and was advanced to the rank of lieutenant, March 6, 1775. He was taken prisoner in Colonel Baum's unfortunate attack on Bennington. At what time he was exchanged we do not know, but find him acting as assistant deputy quartermaster-general in New York and Georgia from 1779 to the close of the war. He was commissioned a captain-lieutenant and captain in the Engineers, October 1, 1784, and a major in the army. May 6, 1795. His name does not appear in the army lists after 1799. 272 James Grant entered the Sixteenth Light Dragoons as cornet, December 27, 1774, and was transferred to the Twenty-first Dragoons, December 27, 1775. He was one of the men selected by Burgoyne to bear dispatches through the American lines to Clinton, but was not successful, and returned to the British camp. He was subsequently taken prisoner, but was paroled and returned to England. On October 20, 1779, he was promoted to the army rank of lieutenant, and, on January 7, 1780, exchanged into the Sixty-first Foot as an ensign. On the following twenty-sixth of April he was made a lieutenant, but we can trace his career no farther, as his name disappears from the army lists after 1782. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 347 31st Company. 34th Company; Wounded, Captain Forbes.283 53rd Company; Killed, Captain Wight. ---------------- 273 Francis Samuel Stapleton entered the Ninth Foot as an ensign, September 4, 1762, while that regiment was engaged in its arduous and successful campaign in the island of Cuba, and the next year accompanied the regiment to Florida, which territory Spain had ceded to Great Britain in exchange for Cuba, which it had lost in the war. In the autumn of 1769 the Ninth arrived in Ireland, and on December 12, 1770, while it was in garrison there, Ensign Stapleton was raised to the rank of lieutenant, and on May 21, 1773, was promoted to a captaincy in his regiment. He participated in the operations by which the Americans were expelled from Canada in 1776, and fell mortally wounded in the action of the 7th July, 1777. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Ninth Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 174. 274 James Haggart received his first commission of second lieutenant of marines, May 25, 1775, and was killed in the battle of July 7, 1777. Anburey relates that upon the very first attack of the Light Infantry a ball destroyed both of his eyes. 275 George Swettenham was commissioned a lieutenant in the army, February 28, 1760, and of the Ninth Foot, August 8, 1764, while that regiment was stationed in Florida under the command of Lieutenant-General Whitemore. In 1769 he returned to Ireland with his regiment, where it remained until the breaking out of the war in America. On March 2, 1776, he was promoted to a captaincy, and was wounded at the battle of Freeman's Farm. He was among the paroled officers of the surrendered army. His regiment returned to England at the close of the war, in 1783, and was stationed in Scotland in 1784 and 1785, and in the latter year his name disappears from the army lists. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Ninth Foot; Burgoyne's Orderly Book, p. 178. 348 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. British Line. 9th Regiment; Killed, Lieutenant Westrop; Wounded, Captn. Mt. Gomery,284 Lieutenants Ste- ---------------- 276 John Rowe entered the service as an ensign in the Ninth Foot, December 12, 1770, while this regiment was in Ireland, and was advanced to a lieutenancy, October 19, 1772, He was wounded in the action of July seventh, and does not appear to have been with his regiment after this date. He was superseded September 20, 1777. 277 John Don received his commission of second lieutenant in the Twenty-first Foot, August 28, 1771, and of first lieutenant, February 23, 1776. Anburey thus speaks of his death in the action of the nineteenth of September: "Shortly after this we heard a most tremendous firing upon our left, where we were attacked in great force, and the very first fire, your old friend, Lieutenant Don, of the 21st regiment, received a ball through his heart. I am sure it will never be erased from my memory; for when he was wounded, he sprung from the ground, nearly as high as a man." Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 414. 278 Hon. Malcolm Ramsay entered the Twenty-first Foot as ensign on May 18, 1761, and appears on the same date to have been made a second lieutenant. The Twenty-first was at this time engaged in the successful expedition against Belleisle, on the coast of France, and, after the capture of that place, proceeded to Mobile. Lieutenant Ramsay was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, January 16, 1765; captain-lieutenant, October 6, 1769, and captain, December 25, 1770. In 1772 his regiment was ordered home, where it remained until the spring of 1776, when it sailed for Canada to relieve Carleton. Captain Ramsay was wounded, September nineteenth, at the battle of Freeman's Farm, and so severely as not to be able to share in the subsequent perils of the campaign. He was probably in Canada at the time of the surrender of Burgoyne, where we find him, December 21, 1777, commissioned a major in the Eighty- third Foot. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the Eighty- Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 349 velly,285 Murray,286 Prince,287 Ensign D Salon,288 Adjutant, Fielding;289 Prisoners, Captn. Mt Gomery, Money - Ensign D Salons and Surgeon [Shelly] ---------------- third, and deputy adjutant-general in New Brunswick, August 24, 178 1. His name appears on the army lists for the last time as "lieutenant-colonel late Eighty-third Foot" in 1794. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-first Foot; Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, p. 175. 279 Wm. Featherstone was commissioned a second lieu- tenant in the Twenty-first Foot, May 17, 1762, and a lieu- tenant, November 18, 1768. The regiment was during this time stationed at Mobile, where it remained until 1772, when it returned to England. Early in the spring of 1776 it was ordered back to America to relieve Carleton, and Lieutenant Featherstone participated in the campaign of that year. He was commissioned a captain-lieutenant with rank of captain in the army, September 12, 1777. He was wounded in the battle of October seventh, and we infer, was conveyed to Canada, as his name does not appear upon the list of officers who surrendered at Saratoga. His name is borne upon the army lists as captain until 1794, when it disappears. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Historical Record Twenty-first Foot. 280 Poole England received his first commission as ensign in the Forty-seventh Foot, November 6, 1769, and on April i6> 1773 - the year in which his regiment embarked for America - he was promoted to a lieutenancy. He participated in the battle of Bunker Hill - in which action he was wounded - and, when Boston was evacuated, accompanied his regiment to Canada. He was fort major at Ticonderoga, September 6, 1777, and was taken prisoner, but liberated on parole. His name is not found on the army lists later than 1783. 281 John Shrimpton was commissioned a lieutenant in the Sixty-second Foot, June 3, 1761, and, on the twenty-second of the following October, received the same rank in the 350 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. ---------------- army, and was advanced to the rank of captain-lieutenant and captain, September 17, 1773. He was wounded on the seventh of July in the following manner: "After the action was over, and all firing had ceased for near two hours, upon the summit of the mountain I have already described, which had no ground anywhere that could command it, a number of officers were collected to read the papers taken out of the pocketbook of Colonel Francis, when Captain Shrimpton, of the 62nd regiment, who had the papers in his hand, jumped up and fell, exclaiming, 'he was severely wounded; ' we all heard the ball whiz by us, and turning to the place from whence the report came, saw the smoke; as there was every reason to imagine the piece was fired from some tree, a party of men were instantly detached, but could find no person, the fellow, no doubt, as soon as he had fired, had slipt down and made his escape." Anburey again speaks of him shortly after: "Major (sic) Shrimpton, who I told you was wounded upon the hill, rather than remain with the wounded at Huberton, preferred marching with the brigade, and on crossing this creek, having only one hand to assist himself with, was on the point of slipping in, had not an officer, who was behind him caught hold of his cloaths, just as he was falling. His wound was through his shoulder, and as he could walk, he said he would not remain to fall into the enemy's hands, as it was universally thought the sick and wounded must." Captain Shrimpton recovered sufficiently to participate in the subsequent scenes of the campaign of 1777, and was one of the surrendered officers who signed the parole at Cambridge. He returned to England and became tower major at the Tower of London in 1787, but we lose sight of him the following year. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, pp. 231, et seq., 342. 282 Thomas Steele entered the Twenty-ninth Foot as an ensign, June 21, 1769, and was advanced to the rank of lieutenant therein, November 3, 1773. The Twenty-ninth Regiment was in America during this period, but returned to England in 1774, where it was in garrison for two years, when it was ordered back to America to assist in the war there. Lieutenant Steele was wounded in the action of July seventh, but not, it would appear, seriously enough to Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 351 ---------------- prevent him from participating in the subsequent events of Burgoyne's campaign, as we find him at the close of it among the surrendered officers. The army lists do not bear his name later than 1784. 283 Gordon Forbes entered the Thirty-third Foot as an ensign under a commission bearing date August 27, 1756, and was advanced to the rank of lieutenant in the Seventy- second Foot - the second battalion of the Thirty-third, which had been renumbered - on October 2, 1757. On October 17, 1762, he was promoted to a captaincy, and during the two following years, served in the expedition against the Spanish settlements in the West Indies. On his return to England, he exchanged into the Thirty-fourth Foot, April 12, 1764, and accompanied his regiment to Louisiana, which Spain had just ceded to Great Britain. The Thirty- fourth returned to England in 1773, and was ordered to America in the spring of 1776. At the close of the successful campaign against the Americans in that year, Captain Forbes was promoted, on November eleventh, to a majority, and transferred to the Ninth Foot, with which regiment he gallantly served in the campaign of the following year. He was wounded in the action of the nineteenth of September, and was among the officers who surrendered in the following month. He returned to England in 1778, and was made lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred and Second Foot, September 24, 1781. On October 12, 1787, - having been on half pay during the four previous years - he was made lieutenant-colonel of the Seventy-fourth Foot, and, November 18, 1790, colonel in the army. On April 18, 1794, not having had a regimental command for a period of five years, he was appointed colonel of the One Hundred and Fifth Foot, and, on October third, was made a major- general in the army. On January 24, 1787, - the One Hundred and Fifth having been disbanded during the preceding year - he was made colonel of the Eighty-first, but was transferred to the Twenty-ninth Foot on August eighth following. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, January 1, 1801, and of general, January 1, 1812. His death took place January 17, 1828. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books, pp. xlvii, 162-164. 352 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. ---------------- 284 Wm. Stone Montgomery. See note 167, ante, p. 221, 285 Joseph Stevelly was commissioned an ensign in the Ninth Foot, January 1, 1774, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, December 19, 1776. He was wounded at Fort Anne, July ninth, but was with his regiment at the time of the surrender. His name is not borne on the army lists after 1781. 286 James Murray was commissioned an ensign in the Ninth Foot, September 26, 1772, and a lieutenant, March 2, 1776. He served through Carleton's campaign, and was wounded the following year in the attack on Fort Anne, July ninth. Anburey, in writing home, speaks of him as "our pleasant Hibernian friend," and describes the rough manner in which he comforted his fellow sufferers who had met with the same misfortune which had befallen him. Murray was among the officers who were paroled at Cam- bridge after the surrender. He served as the quartermaster of his regiment until the close of the war, having acted in that capacity for a period of fourteen years - namely, from January 14, 1770, to the close of 1783. He was advanced to the rank of captain, March 31, 1787, In 1789 he retired from the service upon half pay. Vide British Army Lists, in loco; Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, vol. I, p. 350, et seq. 287 William Prince entered the Ninth Foot as an ensign, March 14, 1772, and was advanced to a lieutenancy, July 7, 1775. He was wounded at the battle of Freeman's Farm, September nineteenth, but not sufficiently to prevent him from remaining with his regiment, hence he was among the officers who surrendered at Saratoga a few weeks later. He was promoted to a captaincy, April 5, 1781, but does not appear to have attained any higher rank. His name is borne on the army lists for the last time in 1785. 288 Baron Alexander Salons was commissioned an ensign in the Ninth Foot, September 2, 1776. By an order of August thirteenth he was assigned to service in Captain Fraser's corps, and, three days later, while in performance of his duty, was wounded at the battle of Bennington. He was sent back with the wounded to Canada, and, after his Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 353 ---------------- return to England, was made a captain in the Eighty-fifth, which was assigned to duty in Jamaica. The climate of Jamaica wrought great havoc in the regiment, and it is said that in a short time nine-tenths of the men of the regiment were dead or on the sick list. In 1783 his name disappears from the army lists. 289 Isaac Fielding received his commission as adjutant in the Ninth Foot, November 24, 1775. He was wounded at Fort Anne, July ninth, but had recovered from his wound sufficiently to take part in the final scenes of the campaign; hence he was' among the officers who surrendered at Sara- toga. We have no account of his subsequent career, as his name disappears from the army list after 1780. 45 354 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. Return of the army of the United States under the command of H. Gates, Major General, 17th October 1777. Brigadiers ...................... 12. Colonels ........................ 44. Lieut Colonels .................. 43. Majors .......................... 49. Captains ....................... 344. First lieutent ................. 332. Second lieutt .................. 326. Ensigns ........................ 345. Chaplains ........................ 5. Adjutants ....................... 42. Quarter masters ................. 44. Paymasters ...................... 30. Surgeons ........................ 37. Surgeons mates .................. 43. Sergeants ..................... 1392. Drummers ....................... 636. Rank & file ................. 13,216. Sick present ................... 622. Sick absent .................... 731 At Fort Edward ................ 3875. on command. On Furlough .................... 180. ------ 22348. ====== Signed Horatio Gates Major General. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 355 Return of the British Troops under the Command of Lieut Genl Burgoyne 17 October 1777. Generals staff ................. 10. Lieut Cols ...................... 4. Majors .......................... 6. Captains ....................... 40. Lieutenants .................... 59. Ensigns ........................ 36. Chaplains ....................... 4. Adjutants ....................... 5. Qr. masters ..................... 3. Surgeons ........................ 7. Mates ........................... 7. Sergeants ..................... 162. Drummers & fifers ............. 135. Rank & file fit for duty ..... 2365. Sick .......................... 361. Musicians ...................... 36. Batt men ...................... 139. ----- 3379 ===== Signed JBurgoyne Lieut. General. Return of the German troops tinder the Command of Lieut. General Burgoyne, 17th October 1777. Officiers ..................... 132. Bat officiers ................. 197. Chusurgiers .................... 19. Soldats ...................... 1792. Tambours ....................... 72. ----- Total Germans ................ 2202. ===== Riedesel. General Major. 356 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. Total provincial army ............. .... 22348. British .......................... 3379 5581. Germans .......................... 2202 -------- ------ Difference of armies ............... 16767. ====== *GENERAL BURGOYNE'S SPEECH TO THE INDIANS IN CONGRESS, BOUQUET JUNE 21 1777 AND THEIR ANSWER. Brave Chiefs and Warriors. "The great King, our common father and the patron of all who seek and deserve his protection, has considered with satisfaction the general conduct of the Indians tribes, from the beginning of the troubles in America, too sagacious and too faithful to the deluded or corrupted, they have observed the violated rights of the parental power they love, and burned to vindicate them. A few individuals alone, the refuse of a small tribe, at the first were led away, and the misrepresentations, the special allurements, the insidious promises and diversified [plots] in which the rebels are exercised, and all of which they employed for that effect, have served only in the end, to enhance the honour of the tribes in general for demonstrating to the world, how few and how contemptible are the apostates. It is a truth known to you all, that, these pitiful examples excepted (and ---------------------------------------------------------------- * This speech of Burgoyne to the Indians appears at the end of Digby's Journal, and is imperfect, the leaves which contained the concluding portion of it and the old chiefs reply being lost. These I have been enabled to supply, J. P. B. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 357 they probably have before this day hid their faces in shame), the collected voices and hands of the Indian tribes over their vast continent, are on the side of justice, of law and of the king. [The restraint you have put upon your resentment in waiting the King, your father's call to arms, the hardest proof, I am persuaded, to which your affection could have been put, is another manifest and affecting mark of your adherence to that principle of connection to which you were always fond to allude, and which is the mutual joy and the duty of the parent to cherish.] The clemency of your father has been abused, the offers of his mercy have been despised and his farther patience, would in his eyes become culpable in asmuch as it would withold redress from the most grievous oppressions in the provinces, that ever disgraced the history of mankind. It therefore remains for me the general of one of his majesties armies, and in this council his representative, to release you from those bonds [which] your obedience imposed. Warriors [you are free ! Go] forth in the might of your valour [and your cause; strike at the common enemies of Great Britain and America - disturbers of public order, peace, and happiness - destroyers of commerce, parricides of the State." Having reached this part of his speech General Burgoyne raised his hand and pointed to the British officers which surrounded him and then to their German allies and continued. 358 Lieutenant Digbys Journal. "The circle around you - the chiefs of His Majesty's European forces and of the Princes his allies, esteem you as brothers in the war : [emulous in glory and in friendship, we will endeavour reciprocally to give and to receive examples; we know how to value, and we will strive to imitate your preseverance in enterprise and your constancy, to resist hunger, weariness and pain.] Be it our task, from the dictates of our religion, the laws of our warfare, and the principles and interests of our policy, to regulate your passions when they overbear, to point out where it is nobler to spare than to revenge, to discriminate the degrees of guilt, to suspend the uplifted stroke, to chastise and not to destroy. [This war to you my friends is new; upon all former occasions, in taking the field, you held your- selves authorized to destroy wherever you came, because every where you found an enemy. The case is now very different. The King has many faithful subjects dispersed in the provinces consequently you have many brothers there, and these people are more to be pitied, that they are persecuted or imprisoned wherever they are discovered or suspected, and to dissemble, to a generous mind, is a yet more grievous punishment. Persuaded that your magnanimity of character, joined to your principles of affection to the King, will give me fuller controul over your minds than the Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 359 proclaim for your invariable observation during the campaign ".] To this the Indians shouted vociferously Etow ! Etow ! Etow ! to signify their approval and then listened with eager attention, to gather from the interpreter the General's instructions which were as follows : - "I positively forbid bloodshed when you are not opposed in arms. "Aged men, women, children, and prisoners must be held secure from the knife or hatchet, even in the time of actual conflict. "You shall receive compensation for the prisoners you take, but you will be called to account for scalps. "In conformity and indulgence to your customs, which have affixed an idea of honour to such badges of victory, you will be allowed to take the scalps of the dead when killed by your fire or in fair opposition, but on no account or pretence or subtilty or Lieutenant Digbys Journal. those who fall into their hands, it shall be yours also to retaliate, but till this severity shall be thus compelled, bear immovable in your hearts this solid maxim: (it cannot be too deeply impressed) [that the great essential reward the worthy service of your alliance] the sincerity of your zeal to the King, your father and never-failing protector, will be examined and judged upon the test only of your steady and uniform adherence to the orders and counsels of those to whom His Majesty has entrusted the direction and the honour of his arms."] At the conclusion they again shouted Etow ! Etow ! Etow ! and after holding a consultation, an aged Iroquois chief gravely arose and replied as follows : REPLY OF THE OLD CHIEF OF THE IROQUOIS TO BURGOYNE'S SPEECH OF JUNE 21st, 1777. I stand up in the name of all the nations present, to assure our father that we have attentively listened to his discourse. We receive you as our father, because when you speak we have the voice of our great father beyond the great lake. We rejoice in the approbation you have expressed of our behaviour. We have been tried and tempted by the Bostonians; but we have loved our father, and our hatchets have been sharpened upon our affections. In proof of the sincerity of our professions, our whole villages able to go to war are come forth. The old and infirm, our infants and wives alone remain at home. Lieutenant Digbys Journal. 361 With one common assent we promise a constant obedience to all you have ordered, and all you shall order; and may the Father of Days give you many and success." When the Iroquois Chief had concluded his speech his hearers applauded as before with loud shouts of Etow! Etow! Etow! W Digby Lieut 53' Regt. 46 INDEX. ---------------- Anbenaquis, 93. Abercrombie, General James, before Ticonderoga, 127; St. Leger served under, 256; Stanwix under, 258; mentioned, 217, 258. Account of Burgoyne's Cam- paign, see Neilson, Charles. Acland, Lady Harriet, accom- panied her husband to America, 112; conflicting stories concerning her sec- ond marriage, 112; escaped from a burning tent, 267, 268; romantic attachment for her husband, 268; in the American lines, 298; her heroic conduct, 298, 299; described, 299; sister of Capt. Strangways, 338; mentioned, 295, 339. Acland, Major John Dyke, wounded, 211, 290, 298, 343; his tent burned, 267; him- self burned, 268; the ro- mantic attachment of his wife, 268; biographical no- tice, III; mentioned, 16, III. Adams, Katherine, mother of Capt. Robert, 137. Adams, Capt. Robert, mur- dered by Indians, 135, 136; biographical notice of, 136- 138. Adams, Thomas, father of Capt. Robert, 136, 137. Adolphus, John, his History of England, cited, 239. Agnew, Major William, wounded, 335; biograph- ical notice, 337. Albany, Burgoyne, Clinton and Howe to meet at, 14, 15, 19, 24, 26, 64, 65, 259; Burgoyne proceeded to- ward, 21; re-enforcements sent to, 25; Burgoyne's path to, blocked, 29; Clin- ton on the way to, 46; Gen. Schuyler born and died in, 241, 243; the Baroness Rie- desel in, 243; volunteers from, 250; St. Leger to meet Burgoyne at, 258; mentioned, 19, 28, 33, 101, 108, 240, 244, 257, 277, 281. Algonquins, the, 93. 364 Index. Allen, Col. Ethan, captured Ticonderoga, 127. Allen, Joseph, his Battles of the British Navy, cited, 140. Amboy, evacuated by Howe, America, a day famous in the annals of, 317; mentioned, 67, 69, 93, 102, 121, 155, 156, 166, 169, 174, 182, 189, 191, 218, 222, 230, 234, 239, 245, 246, 300, 305, 306, 310, 325, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 337, 339, 340, 346, 349, 350. American Archives, The, cited, 104, 114, 130, 138, 254, 300. American Historical Record, The, cited, 257. American Revolution, The History of, see Ramsay, David, M. D. American troops, the, triumphant in Canada, 3, 8; driven from Quebec, 9, 10; disheartened, 13; sufferings of, 13, 14; bitter at the loss of Ticonderoga, 20; impatient for the approach of Carleton, 172; accused of inhumanity, 261, 263, 264, 265, 270, 272, 273; defended by Gates, 261-263, American War, History of the, see Stedman, C. Amhurst, Gen. Jeffrey, captured Crown Point, 127; captured Ticonderoga, 127; biographical notice of, 135- 137. Anburey, Thomas, biographical notice of, 17; his Travels through the Interior Parts of America translated into French and German, 17; cited, 17, 18, 123, 130, 131, 134, 175, 211-213, 237, 252, 255, 268, 270, 272, 273, 327, 330, 331, 332, 339, 340, 341, 348, 350, 352. Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, The, 283. Andover, Mass., 282. Annual Biography and Obituary, The, cited, 278. Annual Register, The, cited, 86, 140, 148. Anson, Lord, General Howe served under, 156. Anstruther, Colonel John, wounded, 336, 337; biographical notice of, 344; mentioned, 272, 341. Anticosti, Island of, described, 96, 97. Antiochus, 121. Antroch, Ensign Henry de, see Danterroch, Henry. Apollo, The, 187. Argyle, the Tories of, seek protection from the In- dians, 236. Ariadne, The, 148. Arnold, Gen. Benedict, joined Montgomery, 8; attacked by Carleton, 10, 12; unable to form a conjunction with Sullivan, 12, 13; attacked Burgoyne and Eraser, 30; urged Gates to make a night attack, 32, 291; suspended. Index. 365 32; a controlling spirit in a fight, 39, 40, 41; duel with Balcarres, 87; dispatched a party to reconnoitre, 145; commander on the lake, 146, 147, 241; built the Royal Savage, 158; com- mander of the Congress, 163; confidence reposed in, 164; heroic conduct, 171, 288, 289; strengthened his position at Ticonderoga, 172; accompanied Phillips to Virginia, 175; supposed letter to Burgoyne, 241; joined the British, 246; suspected by Clinton, 246, 247; with Morgan in Can- ada, 271; his furious attack upon the Germans, 288, 289; before Quebec, 325; biographical notice of, 146, 147; mentioned, 9, 3 1 3, 3 19- Arnold, Hannah, letter of, to her son Benedict, 146. Arnold's Campaign for the Conquest of Canada, see Henry, John Joseph. Arrogant, The, 150. Articles of Convention be- tween Gates and Burgoyne, 312-317. Astor Library, vi. August, The, 253. Baccalaos, early name of New- foundland, 90. Balcarres, the Earl of, at- tacked by Arnold, 41; duel with Arnold, 87; landed at Quebec, 104; wounded. 211,331; biographical no- tice of, 86; mentioned, 16, no, 252, 327. Balcaskie, Scotland, 344. Barre, Col. Isaac, demanded of Germaine what was be- come of Burgoyne, 65; re- gretted the death of Gen. Montgomery, 100, 101. Basque, a province of Spain, 95. Basques, the, fished early near Newfoundland, 90. Batman, defined, 202. Batten Kill, 249, 253. Battersby, Lieutenant James, wounded, 330; biograph- ical notice of, 330. Battles of the British Navy, see Allen, Joseph. Baum, Lieut.-Col. Frederick, sent to attack Bennington, 23-24; 250, 251, 346; his command destroyed, 23; taken prisoner, 260; bio- graphical notice of, 260; mentioned, 193, 194. Bay of Biscay, 207. Bay of Placentia, 91. Beatson, Robert, his Military Memoirs of Great Britain, cited, 148; his Political Index to the Histories 01 Great Britain, cited, 148. Belle Isle, the expedition .against. Col. Hamilton in, 196; General Hodgson in, 207; Maj. Walker in, 207; Capt. Jones in, 325; Col. Lind in, 333; Capt. Ram- say in, 348. 366 Index. Bemus Heights, the battle of, Maj. Acland wounded at, III; Mrs. Acland at, Ii2; Breymann killed at, 193. Bennington, the patriots gathered at, 23; Gen. Baum sent to seize the stores at, 23- Bennington, the battle of, Lieut.-Col. Peters at, 194; Gen. Riedesel sent to, 248, 250; Lieut.-Col. Baum taken prisoner at, 260, 346; the victory at, caused re- cruits to come into the American camp, 267; Capt. Durnford taken prisoner at, 346; Capt. Salons wounded at, 352; mentioned, 24, 27, 193, 255, 260, 261, 262, 265. Berkshire, England, 86. Berwick, Maine, 10. Berwick, Scotland, Sir Wil- liam Howe, governor of, 156. Betham, the Rev. William, his Baronetage, cited, 222. Bingley, Lord, a supposed relative of Burgoyne, 168. Biographical Dictionary, see Blake. John L., D. D. Bird Islands, The, described, 92. Birnstead, England, Howarth died at, 328. Biscay, a province of Spain, 95- Biscay, the Bay of, 207. Biscayners, The, supposed an- cestors of the Esquimaux, 95; traces of, in Europe, 95. Blake, Capt. John, wounded, 335; biographical notice of, 337, 33S. Blake, John L., D. D., his Bio- graphical Dictionary, cited, 247. Blackee, see Blacker. Blacker, Ensign Henry, wounded, 337; biograph- ical notice of, 345. Bleurie River, The, 142, Blomefield, Capt. Thomas, wounded, 325; biograph- ical notice of, 325, 326. Bonchetti, Joseph, his British Dominions in North Amer- ica, cited, 97. Boscawen, Admiral Edward, accompanied to America by St. Clair, 218. Boston, Burgoyne's troops to embark at, 49; troops quar- tered in, 49, 50; Gen. Heath at the siege of, 62; Bur- goyne in, 115; Capt. Craig at the siege of, 166; Col. Marshall born in, 283; mentioned, 60, 61, 62, 103, 113, T47, 182, 194,244, 282, 314, 349- Boston Gazette, The, Gen. Heath a writer for, 61. Boston Massacre, Lieut. Bat- tersby in the, 330. Boston, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Sumner, 163. Botta, Carlo G. G., his His- tory of the War of Inde- pendence, cited, 101, 247. Boucherville, Canada, 193. Index. 367 Boucherville, Capt. Rιnι An- toine de, in command of a Canadian company, 193; biographical notice of, 193. Bouquet Expedition, Capt. Adams in the, 137. Bouquet, Col. Henry, 200. Bouquet River, The, named after Col. Bouquet, 200. Bourbon River, The, 93. Bouroughbridge, England, represented by Gen. Phil- lips, 174. Braddock, Gen. Edward, Gen. Gates served under, 169; Col. Morgan served under, 270; Capt. Langlade served under, 254. Brampton, England, Arnold's death at, 147. Brandywine, Battle of, Gen. Sullivan at the, 10. Breed's Hill, 236, see Bunker Hill. Brenton, Edward P., his Naval History of Great Britain, cited, 148. Breymann, Lieut.-Col. Hein- rich Christoph, sent to sup- port Baum, 24; defeated, 24; biographical notice of, 193-194; mentioned, 31, 41, 193, 288. Bribes, Gens. Schuyler and St. Clair accused of accept- ing, 219. British Army Lists, The, cited, 86, 87, 109, 112, 114, 123, 124, 130, 137, 150, 156, 160, 171, 175, 181, 182. 195, 199,203,206, 207, 211, 217, 219,222,225, 234, 235, 245, 247, 257, 278, 287, 290, 300, 306, 312,325, 327, 328, 329, 330,332,333. 334, 335, 336, 337,338,339, 340, 341, 343, 344,345,347, 348, 349, 35o, 351,352. British Family Antiquary, see Playfaire, William. British Museum, v, vii. British North America, Gen. Craig Governor General of, 167. British War Office, vi. Brooks, the Rev. Charles, his History of Medford, cited, 213. Brown, Col., attacked Ticon- deroga, 277. Brudenel, the Rev. Edward, performed the funeral serv- ice at the burial of General Eraser, 296; conducted Lady Acland to the Amer- ican lines, 298, 299; bio- graphical notice of, 298. Brunswick, 334. Brunswick Dragoons, The, 260. Brymen, see Breymann, Lieut.- Col. Heinrich Christoph. Brymner, Mr. Douglas, vi, 195. Buckingham, James Silk, his Canada, Nova Scotia and other British Provinces, cited, 92. Bullet, Story of the Silver, 33, 34. Bunbury, Capt. Abraham, wounded, 337; biograph- ical notice of, 345. 368 Index. Bunker Hill, the battle of, its effect upon the English Government, 4, 5; Dear- born at, 38; the retreat from Long Island com- pared to the, 60; Col. Nes- bit at, 114; witnessed by Burgoyne, 116; the assault led by Gen. Howe, 155; Capt. Craig at, 166, 167; L'Estrange at, 182; Col. Hale at, 216; Sir Henry Clinton at, 246; Col. Dow- ling at, 335; Lieut. Eng- land at, 349; mentioned, 236, 313- Burgoyne, Lady Charlotte, 115- Burgoyne, Lieut.-Gen. Sir John, drove Sullivan to St. Johns, 10; sailed for Eng- land, 13, 14; at Quebec, 14, 187; in command of the Northern army, 14, 15, 84, 85, 187, 188; at Mon- treal, 15; letter to Lord Germaine, 15; occupied a post near Ticonderoga, 15; fine equipped army, 16-18; army divided into three brigades, 17; detached St. Leger to Fort Schuyler, 18; at Crown Point, 19; before Ticonderoga, 19, 20; his position discovered, 20; captured Ticonderoga, 20; victory celebrated, 21, 172; letter to Lord Germaine, 21; sent for more troops, 21-22; to Skeensborough, 22; his progress hindered. 22, 30; discontent of his allies, and army weakened, 22-23; sent Baum to Ben- nington, 23; embarrassed, 24, 29, 37; disheartened letter to Lord Germaine, 24-27; messages to Gen. Howe intercepted, 25, 28, 123; to meet Howe at Al- bany, 24, 26, 64, 65, 188, 257, 258; recruits at Lake Champlain, 26; communi- cations cut off, 26, 197; awaited Howe's operations, 26; peril of his position, 27, 28, 29; defeat of St. Leger, 27; crossed the Hudson, 28; at Dovegat, 29; path blocked, 29; army divided, 29, 30; attacked by Arnold and Morgan, 30, 38; failed to follow a gained advantage, 31, 275; im- justly claimed victory, 31; advised to advance, 32; re- ceived letters from Gen. Clinton, 32-34, 275; mes- senger to, taken prisoner, 33, 284; hoped for re-en- forcements, 32, 33; fortified his camp, 33, 34; letter to Clinton, 35, 36; position more critical, 37, 288, 289,. 300; prepared to attack the Americans, 37; attacked by the enemy, 38; ordered a retreat, 40, 41; moved across Fish Creek, 42, 293; not guilty of spending the night in revelry, 42, 43; sent a force to clear the Index. 369 way to Fort Edward, 44; a still more critical position, 46; called a council, 46, 47, 317, 318; a retreat prevented by the enemy, 46, 47, 251, 279; proposed a surrender, 47, 296, 305-307; his terms accepted, 47; endeavored to break the agreement, 47-48, 309, 310. 311; treaty signed, 48, 312; surrendered, 49; troops started for Boston, 49; difficulty in supplying quarters for his army, 51, 52; complicated affairs, 53; his supplies in arrears, 54; regimental colors not given up, 55, 74; his utterances carefully scanned, 57; his soldiers deserted, 58; feeling of doubt concerning him, 58; his health impaired, 59; embarked for England, 59, 88, 173; paid expenses for his troops, 59; felt that the American Government treated him unjustly, 64; dispatches from, reach England, 66, 346; the disaster of his army expected, 64-66, 318, 319; his reception in London, 66, 67; published an address on his campaign, 68, 69; ministry hostile, 68; accused of trying to supplant Carleton, 68; charged, with double dealing, 68; endeavored to have his captured army liberated, 68; demanded a 47 trial, 68-69; assailed by pamphlets, 69, 70; popular, 67, 68, 69; ordered to America, 67, 68, 69; his army a sacrifice to a blunder of Lord Germaine, 70, 321; Howe's failure to co-operate with him a puzzle to Washington, 71, 72; compared to Howe, 72; second in command, 84, 85; treated prisoners humanely, 108; his expedition against Forts Chambly and St. Johns, 114-116; in Parliament, 115; general orders of, 119; orders against scalping, 135, 359; on the Maria, 151; erected a block-house, 152; witnessed the battle of Bunker Hill, 155; his favorite aid-de-camp, 160; his parentage, 168; complimented Carleton, 172; advised Carleton to advance, 172; left Phillips in command of the troops, 175; Colonel of the Queen's Regiment, 189, 229, 231, 232; Governor of Fort William, 189, 229, 231, 232; manifesto of, 189-192; humorous replies to, 192, 229-232; his unfavorable opinion of the Provincial loyalists, 195; on St. Clair's want of foresight, 204; praised the Grenadiers, 212; occupied Mount Defiance, 218; said to have bribed Gens. Schuyler and St. 370 Index. Clair, 219; eulogized Gen. Montgomery, 221; in Port- ugal, 222; eulogized Gen. Fraser, 224-225; his advance on Skeensborough a help to the enemy, 227-228; is- sued a proclamation, 233; not in favor of hiring In- dians, 237-239, 262; letters to Gen. Gates, 237, 263, 259-265; supposed letter from Gen. Arnold, 241; de- stroyed the house of Gen. Schuyler, 243; at Duer's house, 244; Gen. Clinton's weak attempt to help him, 246; at Fort Miller, 249; crossed the Hudson, 249, 267; on St. Luc, 254; his orders relating to deserters, 256; to meet St. Leger at Albany, 257, 258; com- plained of the treatment of prisoners, 261; sent supplies to his officers, 263; de- fended himself against the aspersions of Gen. Gates, 264-265; on Saratoga Heights, 267, 300; com- pared to Gen. Gates, 274; his reasons for not follow- ing the advice of Fraser and Phillips, 275; his death reported, 277; heard of Clinton's advance, 278; criticised in his own army, 291; baggage destroyed, 301; denied having unnec- essarily destroyed property, 301; discontent in his army, 302-303; articles of sur- render given in full, 312- 317; his surrender the turn- ing point of the Revolution, 318; his meeting with Gen. Gates, 320; letters to Lord Germaine, 323; not to be censured, 323; return of the killed, wounded and prisoners of his command, 324; return of his troops, 355; his speech to the In- dians, 356-360; other speeches of, cited, 68, 254, 302; biographical notice of, 1 14-1 16; mentioned, v, vi, vii, I, 2, 16, 18, 56, 65, 117, 123, 136, 139, 150, 170, 192, 194, 197, 198, 211, 219, 220, 239, 243,260, 271,281, 282, 297. 308,313, 314,315, 316, 322, 325,327, 332,333, 335, 337,343,345,348; the Con- vention of Saratoga, see Deane, Charles, LL.D.; his letter to his constitu- ents, cited, 66; his Orderly- Book, see O'Callaghan, Ed- mund B., LL.D.; his State of the Expedition from Canada, cited, 15, 21, 24, 49, 50, 69, 112, 175, 325, 327. see, also, Fonblanque, Edward Barrington, de; Neilson, Chas.; and Stone, Col. William L. Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, son of Gen. Sir John, 116. Burgoyne's Light-Horse, 115. Burke, Sir Bernard, his Landed Gentry, cited, 181; his Peerage and Baronet- Index. 371 age, cited, 86, 87, 104, 112, 116, 156, 160, 327, 338, 340. Burke, Edmund, denounced the employment of mercenary troops, 7; eulogized Montgomery, 101. Burcaco, the battle of, Gen. Howarth at, 328. Cab riding, 180. Cambridge, Mass., Lieut. Digby at, vii; officers quartered at, 50; Balcarres at, 87; Gen. Thompson at, 107; flags displayed at, 161; Gen. Gates at, 170; Gen. Phillips at, 175; Col. Morgan at, 270; Gen. Learned at, 282; Capt. Bunbury at, 345; Capt. Shrimpton at, 350; mentioned, 59, 212, 216, 326. Campbell, Capt. Alexander, carried a dispatch from Burgoyne to Gen. Clinton, Canada, Lieut. Digby in, vi, vii; Forty-third Regiment in, vi, 2; Americans triumphant in, 3, 8; Gen. Carleton to remain in, 14; Gen. Montgomery's campaign in, 19; Gen. Amherst in, 135; Gen. Gates in, 170; mentioned, v, 3, 21, 38, 39, 41, 55, 65, 83, 92, 93, 110, 114, 119, 122, 123, 124, 129, 133, 149, 171, 173, 176, 180, 187, 188, 189, 193, 194, 197, 198, 199, 200, 203, 218, 226, 240, 253, 257, 258, 279, 282, 283,285,300, 316, 326, 329, 330, 332, 336, 345, 347, 348, 349, 352; Arnold's Campaign for the Conquest of, see Henry, John Joseph; Conquest of, see Jones, Charles H.; The History of, see Garneau, Francis Xavier; Nova Scotia and other British Provinces, see Buckingham, James Silk; State of the Expedition from, see Burgoyne, Lieut.- Gen. Sir John. Canadians, Gen. Carleton's treatment of the, 85, 184; employed in the British army, 119, 142, 238; forced to work in irons, 120; character of the, 122; do not bury their dead in the winter, 183; under Boucherville and Moning, 193; under McKay, 300; deserted, 304; returned to Canada, 316. Canoes, how constructed, 123-125. Cape Breton, 194, 253. Cape of Good Hope, Lieut. Scott at the, 124; Capt. Pringle in command at the, 48; Capt. Craig governor of, 167. Cape Race, 91. Cape Rosiers, 91. Cardigan, Capt. Longcroft, in command of the Sea Fencibles off, 151. Caresford, The, 83, 91. 372 Index. Caribs, the campaign against, 149; Capt. Green in the, 278. Carib war, Capt. Pilot in the, 149. Carillon, name given to the present Ticonderoga by Montcalm, 127. Carleton, Gen. Sir Guy, took refuge in Quebec, 8; forced Gen. Thomas to retreat, 9, 10; his army divided, 10; attacked Gen. Arnold at Montreal, 10; improvised a navy, 11; pushed on to Crown Point, 12; eluded by Arnold, 12; destroyed the American fleet, 12; prudence dictated to him to withdraw his army, 13, 18; stationed parts of his army along the St. Lawrence, 13; in winter quarters at Quebec, 13; criticised by Lord Germaine and others, 13; arrival of Burgoyne, 14; appointed commander of the Canadian department, 14; letter to Lord Germaine, 14; departure of Burgoyne, 16; asked to garrison Ticonderoga, 21-22; did not assist Burgoyne in the campaign, 22, 27; Burgoyne accused of artfully supplanting him, 68; in command of the northern army, 84; friend of Gen. Montgomery, 100; at the defence of Quebec, 102; drove the enemy to Fort Sorel, 103; waited for ship, 103-104; treated prisoners humanely, 108, 133; encouraged the hiring of Indians, 121; his orders to arrest all rebels, 133; on the Maria, 157; sent troops to Crown Point, 162; elated at the capture of Col. Waterbury, 163; paroled the prisoners, 166; the Americans impatient for him to approach, 172; close to Crown Point, 172; did not follow the advice of Burgoyne and Phillips, 172; complimented by Burgoyne, 172; reconnoitered the enemy's lines, 174-175; his character, 183, 184; criticised for not taking Ticonderoga, 187, 188; letters to and from Germaine, 238, 258; commander-in- chief, 247; suspected St. Luc of treachery, 253; Burgoyne to notify him of the surrender, 316; sent messenger to England, 318; biographical notice of, 84- 86; mentioned, v, 9, 38, 69, 71, 113, 120, 123, 130, 132, 140, 145, 157, 158, 167, 182, 196, 197, 332, 333, 338, 339, 341, 348, 349, 352. Carleton, Gen. Sir Guy, Letters of, cited, 123. Carleton, Lady Maria Howard, wife of Gen. Sir Guy, 145, 148. Carleton, The, launched, 139; Index. 373 named, 145; commanded by. Lieut. Dacres, 152; mentioned, 148, 151, 158, 176. Carlisle, Pa., Gen. Thompson's death at, 108. Carlisle, Pa., Gazette, The, cited, 127. Carriole, a, described, 180, 181. Carter, Capt. John, destroyed baggage at Skeensborough, 205-206; his spirited conduct, 223; biographical notice of, 205, 206. Cartier, Capt. Jacques, discovered the Island of Anticosti, 97; named the present Island of Orleans, Isle of Bacchus, 103; his Journal Historique, cited, 103. Caryole, see Carriole. Case, the Rev. Wheeler, Poems of, cited, 320. Castletown, Gen. St. Clair at, 218; Burgoyne issued a proclamation for the people to send deputies to, 233; mentioned, 21. Cataracony, de Boucherville born at, 193. Catherine, Queen of Russia, refused to assist George III., 5, 6; called "Sister Kitty," 6. Catlin, George, his American Indians, cited, i2i. Cedars, The, 84. Cerberus, The, at Boston, 115; humorous lines upon, 115. Ceres, The, commanded by Dacres, 139. Chambersburg, 137. Chambly Rapids, 151. Champlain, Lake, see Lake Champlain. Champlain, Samuel de, named the Island of Anticosti, 97; called the present Richelieu River the River of the Iroquois, 103; named Lake St. Peters, 113; probably visited the site of Ticonderoga, 126-127; named the Isle-aux Noix, 135; discovered Lake George, 214; his Voyages, cited, 97, 113, 127. Charibs, see Caribs. Charlestown, Mass., Col. Nesbit at the burning of, 114. Charlestown, S. C., 195, 246. Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, his History of New France, cited, 97; his letters to the Duchess de Lesdiguires, cited, 103, 104. Chatham, 330, Chatham, the Earl of, de- nounced the employment of mercenary troops, 7; upon the surrender of Bur- goyne, 65. Cheeseman, 134. Cheltenham, death of Col. Green at, 27-8. Cherbourg, Gen. Burgoyne at the attack of, 1 15. Cheonderoga, former name of Ticonderoga, 126. 374 Index. Cherokees, campaign against the, 234, 310. Chesapeake Bay, Howe's fleet in the, 321. Chippewas, The, under Lang- lade, 254, 255. Clarke, Capt. Sir Francis Carr, information obtained by, 160, 164; discussed the merits of the Revolution with Gates, 171; favorite aid-de-camp of Burgoyne, 171, 306; killed, 160, 291, 338; succeeded by Maj. Kingston, 305; biograph- ical notice of, 160; men- tioned, 161. Clinton, Francis Fiennes, grandfather of Sir Henry, 246. Clinton, George, father of Sir Henry, former governor of New York, 246. Clinton, Gen. Sir Henry, in command at New York, 25; Burgoyne sent a messenger to urge him up the Hudson, 27, 28, 248, 249, 277, 279, 346; a letter from him reached Burgoyne, 32, 33; about to ascend the river, 33; a messenger of, taken prisoner, 33, 284; letters to Burgoyne, 33, 34, 246, 275; letters from Burgoyne, 35, , 36, 123, 124; captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton, 45, 47; burned Kingston and returned to New York, 46; his progress up the Hudson alarmed Gates, 49; offered to renew the obliga- tion of the convention at Saratoga, 59; ceased to sup- ply the convention prison- ers, 62; superseded by Gen. Carleton, 84; in Boston, 155; criticised for his weak attempt to assist Burgoyne, 246; reported advance up the river, 278; Burgoyne waited to hear from him, 279,285,310,311,312; bio- graphical notice of, 246, 247; mentioned, 19, 314, 319, 345; his narrative cited, 247; his Observations on Stedman's History of the American War, cited, 247. Clinton, Gen. James, received an interrupted letter from Sir Henry Clinton to Bur- goyne, 33, 34. Codfish, strange story of the, 89-90. Codlands, early name of New- foundland, 91. Coffin, Sir Isaac, named the Bird Islands, 92. Coffin's Islands, 92. Cogswell, M., teacher of Gen. Arnold, 146. Collections of the New Hamp- shire Historical Society, cited, 233. Collections of the Wisconsin Historical Society, cited, 255. College de Louis-le-Grand, 17. Collins, Arthur, his Peerage, cited, 86. Index. 375 Colonial History of New- York, see O'Callaghan, Edmund B., LL. D. Colors of the captured regi- ments said to have been left in Canada, 54, 55; proved to be false, 55, 56, 74, see Flags. Congress, The Continental, Gen. Sullivan a delegate to, 10; Gen. Gates before, 170; Gens. Schuyler and St. Clair before, 24 1, 242; men- tioned, 61, 62, 63, 99, 161, 164, 166, 194,283,313. Congress, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Arnold, 163. Connecticut, proposed opera- tions in, 25; Whitcomb a native of, 131; mentioned, 146, 162, 193. Connecticut, History of, see Hollister, G. H. Connecticut, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Grant, 163. Connel, Ensign Morgan, wounded and a prisoner, 333; nothing further known of him, 336. Continental army, 218, sec American troops. The, 218. Cooke, Lieut. John, killed at Freeman's Farm, 332; bio- graphical notice of, 332. Cooke, John Eesten, his Life of Daniel Morgan, cited, 271. Cooper, 134. Copenhagen, Capt. Blome- field at the siege of, 326. Cork, Cove of, the troops sailed from, 4, 83, 98, 151, 339- Cornwallis, Lord, the surren- der of, 70, 219, 247; Gen. Gates served under, 169; governor of Halifax, 169; Gen. Money on the staff of, 290; mentioned, 39, 195. Correspondence in the Public Record Office, cited, 4. Corrica, Capt. Greene in, 278. Cortereal, Capt. Gasper, seized natives for slaves, 95. Coudres, Isle aux, see Isle- aux-Coudres. Council of Censors, 166. Court and City Register, cited, 150. Coutty, Samuel, father of Anne Reynell, 339. Cove of Cork, see Cork, Cove of. Coveville, formerly Davagot, 297. Cowpens, the battle of. Col. Morgan at, 271. Craig, Capt. James H., cap- tured thirty men at Sorel river, 126; went with the flag of truce to the Ameri- can lines, 166, 167; took dispatches to England, 167, 318; prepared a letter to Wilkinson, 310; biograph- ical notice of, 166-168. Cream carried in a basket and sold by weight, 180. Creasy, Sir Edward, his Fif- teen Decisive Battles of the World, cited, 74. 376 Index. Crown Point, Arnold and Sullivan fall back to, ii, 12; Carleton withdrew his troops from, 13, 18; used as a hospital and magazine by Burgoyne, 15; formerly called Fort St. Frederick, 126; captured by Gen. Am- herst, 127; captured by Col. Warner, 127; Gen. Water- bury at, 163; Lieut. Digby at, 164; commanded by Maj. Heartley, 165; weakly garrisoned, 174; feu-de- joy at, 225; mentioned, 21, 117, 135, 147, 162, 177, 200. Crown Point, name given by Gen. Money to his estate, 290; death of Gen. Money at, 290. Cuba, Capt. Stapleton in the expedition against, 347. Culbertson, Alexander, father of Lieut, Joseph, 137. Culbertson, Lieut. Joseph, murdered by Indians, 135, 136; biographical notice of, 137, 138. Culbertson, Margaret, mother of Lieut. Joseph, 137. Culbertson, Robert, in the Pennsylvania line, 137. Culbertson, Samuel, in the Pennsylvania line, 137. Culbertson's Row, 137. Cullen, Lieut. Wm., wounded, 331; biographical notice of, 332. Cumberland Bay, Americans cruising in the, 177. Cumberland county, 137. Cumberland valley, 126. Curray, see Currie. Currie, Lieut. Samuel, killed, 334; biographical notice of, 336. Curwen, Samuel, his Journals and Letters, cited, 171. Dacres, Lieut. James Richard, commanded the Carleton, 139,152; Longcroft served under, 151; biographical notice, 139. ,. Danterroche, Ensign Henry, a prisoner, 337; biograph- ical notice, 346. Davacot, see Dovegat. Davagot, see Dovegat. Davis, commander of the Lee, 164. Dearborn, Lieut.-Col. Henry, leader of the New England troops, 38, 39; biographical notice of, 38, 39. Deane, Charles, LL. D., his Lieut.-Gen. John Burgoyne and the Convention of Sara- toga, cited, 57. De Antroch, see Danterroche. Deer, an abundance of, 154, 165. De Fermoy, Gen. Roche, 20. Delaware river, The, 161, 282, 319- 321. Demarara, Kingston, Lieu- tenant-Governor of, 306. Denmark, 95. Denys, Nicholas, a map of, cited, 92. De Peyster, Gen. John Watts, cited, 20. Index. 377 Derby, the Earl of, a daughter of, married Gen. Burgoyne, 115- Destruction Bay, 176. De Warrville, J. P. Brissot, visited Gen. Heath, 62; his New Travels in the United States of America, cited, 62. Dickenson, , commanded the Enterprise, 164. Dieskau, Baron Ludwig Au- gust, at Fort Miller, 244. Digby, Lieutenant William, but little known of his per- sonal history, vi, 1-2; en- tered the British army, vi; in Ireland, vi, 2, 3; at Que- bec, vi, 104; embarked for America, vi; at Chambly, vi, 118; followed the for- tunes of Burgoyne and pa- roled at Cambridge, vii; on duty in Canada, vii, 2; retired from the service, vii; anchored off the Isle-aux- Coudres, 102; at the Island of Orleans, 103; at Point Neuf, 105; at Trois Riv- ieres, 106; lost a particu- lar friend, 109; at Lake St. Peter, 113; before Fort Sorel, 113; at St. Denis, 116; at Belloeville, 1 18; at Montreal, 1 20; at St. Johns, I35> 139; sick, 148-149; his brother-in-law, 149; went to Riviere-la-Cole, 1 50; on the Loyal Convert, 150, 152; at Point au Fer, 152; ordered to Crown Point, 162; at 48 Crown Point, 164; at Riv- iere Sable, 173; bound for Canada, 176; for St. Johns, 177-178; at Bouquet river, 200; before Ticonderoga, 206; on Mount Independ- ence, 208-210; marched toward Skeensborough, 219-220; delayed, 226; de- parted for Fort Anne, 233; left Fort Anne, 239; near Fort Edward, 240; at Fort Miller, 244; ordered back, 245; at Batten Kill, 249. 253; crossed the Hudson, 267; foraging, 286; in the retreat, 293; at Dovegat, 297; on the heights of Sara- toga, 300; for Fort Edward, 300; baggage destroyed, 301; at the burning of Schuyler's house, 301-302; surrender of the army, 310- 317; prepared to march, 317; mentioned, 20, 116, 133, 135- 150, 158, 161, 181, 184, 192, 217, 234, 250, 275, 277, 278, 283, 284, 290, 301, 317, 340, 361. Documents relating to the Colonial History of New York, see O'Callaghan, Ed- mund B., LL. D. Don, Lieut. John, wounded, 344; biographical notice of, 348. Dorchester, the Baron of, 86. Douglas, Sir Charles, com- mander of the Isis, 104; biographical notice of, 104. 378 Index. Douglas, Lieut. James, killed, 330, 335; biographical no- tice of, 330. Doulin, see Dowling. Dovegat, Gen. Burgoyne at, 29; the retreat to, 41; army moved from,42; lines formed at, 297; now called Cove- ville, 297; origin of the name, 297; long halt at, 302. Dowlin, see Dowling. Dowling, Lieutenant James, wounded, 332, 333; bio- graphical notice of, 335. Dowling, Captain Richard, wounded, 332, 334; bio- graphical notice of, 334. Doyle, Lieutenant William, wounded, 335; biograph- ical notice of, 338-339. Dublin, Captain Henry Pilot, town major of, 150; men- tioned, 49, 221, 222. Duer's house, the head-quar- ters of Burgoyne, 244, 337. Duncan, F., his History of the Royal Artillery, cited, 175, 206, 207, 287, 325, 327, 328, 329- Dundas, Col. Francis, accom- panied Arnold, 246. Dunford, see Durnford. Dunlap, William, his History of New York, cited, 247. Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 319. Durham, N. H., 10. Durnford, Captain Andrew, a prisoner, 338; biographical notice of, 346. Edinburgh, Captain Pringle died at, 148; Gen. St. Clair born in, 218. Egle, William H., M. D., vi, 127, 138. Eighth Foot, 344. Eighty-fifth Foot, 353. Eighty-first Foot, 351. Eighty-fourth Foot, 331. Eighty-second Foot, 167. Eighty-sixth Foot, 306. Eighty-third Foot, 348, 349. Eleventh Dragoons, 115. Eleventh Foot, 196, 305. Eleventh Regiment of Massa- chusetts, 211. England, the people opposed to hiring German troops, 6- 7; Burgoyne sailed for, 13- 14, 59; the disaster of Bur- goyne not unexpected in, 64-66; Capt. Craig took dispatches to, 167; the re- ception of the news of Bur- goyne's surrender in, 318- 319; mentioned, 5, 14, 51, 52, 56, 65, 87,95, 103, 115, 124, 139, 140, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 173, 174, 194, I99" 203, 207, 222, 223, 226, 234, 278,290,310, 322, 325, 334, 336,346,349, 350, 351, 353- England, Histories of, see Adolphus, John; Knight, Charles, and Mahon, Lord. England, Lieut. Poole, a pris- oner, 345; biographical no- tice of, 349. Enterprise, The, commanded by Dickenson, 104; mentioned, 144, 162. Index. 379 Eskmouth, Scotland, 104. Esquimaux, The, in New- foundland, 93; origin of the name of, 93; ate raw flesh, 93; described, 93-96. Etiquette, a poem, 313, 314. Europe, the eyes of, on Bur- goyne's army, 259; men- tioned, 51. Exeter, N. H,, 282. Expedition of Lieut.-Colonel Barry St. Leger, see Stone, Col. William L. Falkirk, the battle of, 234. Farmington, Mass., General Learned born at, 282. Farquar, Captain William, wounded, 332; biograph- ical notice of, 335. Featherstone, Lieut. William, wounded, 344; biograph- ical notice of, 349. Federal Constitution, The, 62. Felinghausen, Gen. Money at the battle of, 290. Ferdinand, Prince, 174, 334. Ferentes d'Onore, battle of, Howarth at the, 328. Ferguson, Col., 213. Fetherston, see Featherstone. Field Book of the Revolution, see Lossing, Benson J. Fielding, Adjutant Isaac, wounded, 349; biograph- ical notice of, 353. Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, see Creasy, Sir Edward. Fifteenth Foot, The, 198. Fifty-fifth Foot, The, 86. Fifty-sixth Foot, The, 335; Historical Record of, cited, 325- Fifty-third Grenadiers, The, 290. Fifty-third Regiment of Foot, The, Lieut. Digby in, vi; organized, 2; uniform of, 2; in Ireland, vi, 2; ordered to Canada, vi, 2; Capt. Scott a member of, 36; a portion of it at the capture of Ti- conderoga, 37, 124; men- tioned, 86, 109, no, 181, 196,203,221, 245,277, 332; Historical Record of, cited, 203, 245, 332. Filbert Island, named by Car- tier, 98, see Isle-aux-Cou- dres. First Foot, The, 128, 234; Historical Record of, cited, 235- Fish Creek, 42. Fish Kiln, 298, 299. Fitch, Asa, his Survey of Washington County, cited, 217. Fitzgerald, Adjutant George Tobias, killed, 336; bio- graphical notice of, 344. Fitzmaurice, Lord Edmond, his Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, cited, 65, 70, 238, 239, 322. Flag, The American, Sir Fran- cis Clarke on, 160-161; de- scribed, 161, 234-235; ac- count of, 161; different ones, 161; materials used in making one for Fort 380 Index. Schuyler, 161; of Liberty, ?20 1, see Colors. Fleet, The American, on Lake Champlain, 162-164. Fleet; The English, on Lake Champlain, 152. Florida, ceded to Great Brit- ain, 149, 347; Capt. Greene in, 278; Lieut. Wright in, 329; Capt. Harris in, 331; Lieut. Currie in, 336; Capt. Stapleton in, 347; Gen. Whitemore in, 347. Fonblanque, Edward Barring- ton de, his Life of Sir John Burgoyne, cited, 7, 13, 33, 42, 74, 83, 112, 116, 124, 168, 171, 204, 284, 298, 299. Fort Anne, the Americans re- tired to, 221; built by Col. Nickerson, 221; described, 221; Captain Montgomery wounded and taken a pris- oner at, 221; Col. Hill be- fore, 224; destroyed, 224; the victory at, of no great benefit to the English, 227; the army advanced toward, 233; Lieut. Westropp killed at, 234; march from, 239; Lieut. Stevelly wounded at, 352; Lieuts. Fielding and Murray wounded at, 353. Fort Arnold, 60. Fort Chamble, sec Fort Cham- bly. Fort Chambly, Gen. Burgoyne to command the expedition against, 114-116; described, 116, 128; captured by the Americans, 1 16, 128; retreat from, 118; mentioned, vi, 11, 117, 120, 129, 131. Fort Cumberland, Gen. Gates at, 169. Fort Du Quesne, Sutherland at the surrender of, 310. Fort Edward, Gen. Schuyler at, 19; in possession of the Americans, 44, 46; army encamped near, 240; the retreat from, 242; men- tioned, 25, 37, 44, 228, 233, 259, 262, 292, 297, 300, 302, 337, 354- Fort Frederic, see Fort St. Frederic. Fort George, account of, 227- 228; erected by Montcalm, 227; named for the Duke of York, 228; heavy bag- gage at, 240, 247; a regi- ment ordered back to, 245; mentioned, 39, 256, 302. Fortieth Foot, The, 210, 211. Fort Independence, General Riedesel before, 19; men- tioned, 205, 214, sec Mount Independence. Fort la Mothe, formerly Fort St. Anne, 143. Fort Ligonier, Gen. St. Clair in command at, 218. Fort Miller, evacuated by the Americans, 244; account of, 244; denominated as Duer's house, 244; Gen. Burgoyne at, 249. Fort Montgomery captured by Gen. Clinton, 124; mentioned, 33, 36. Index. 381 Fort St. Anne, formerly called Fort la Mothe, 143. Fort St. Frederic, former name of Crown Point, 126, 135. Fort St. Johns, Gen. Sullivan driven to, 10, 118; Gen. Burgoyne's departure from, 16; Burgoyne's expedition against, 114-116; captured by the Americans, 116; first erected by Montcalm, 116; vessels built at, 120; cap- tured, 128; Lieut. Digby at, 135, 139; troops assem- bled at, 188; captured by Gen. Montgomery, 300; mentioned, 11, 13, 125, 129, 131, 140, 149. I54" 170, 173, 176, 177, 201. Fort St.. Louis, the present site of Fort Chambly, 1 16. Fort St. Phillip, 333. Fort Schuyler, St. Leger sent to, 18; Gen. Gansevoort at, 19; St. Leger at, 23, 161; flag made for, 161; formerly Fort Stanwix, 258. Fort Sorel, origin of the name, 103; the Americans driven to, 103, 114; Lieut. Digby at, 113. Fort Stanwix, unsuccessful expedition to, 257; account of, 257-258; repaired by Gen. Schuyler, 258. Fort Ticonderoga, see Ticonderoga. Fort William, Gen. Burgoyne governor of, 189, 229. Fort William Henry, the destruction of, 227. Forty-eighth Foot, The, 256, 257. Forty-fifth Foot, The, 123. Forty-fourth Foot, The, 221. Forty-second Foot, The, 86. Forty-seventh Foot, The, 114, 144, 182, 300, 330, 335, 349. Forty-seventh Foot, The His- torical Record of, cited, 182, 335- Forty-seventh Light Infantry, 166. Forty-seventh Regiment, The, 144, 196, 221. Forty-sixth Foot, The, 155, 196. Forty-sixth Foot, The Historical Record of, cited, 156. Foster's Peerage and Orders of Knighthood, cited, 87. Fourth Foot, The, 114, 344. Fox, Charles James, on Lord Germaine, 238; eulogized Gen. Montgomery, 101. Fox, Elizabeth, wife of Stephen, 338. Fox, Stephen, father of Ste- phen Digby Strangways, 338. Foxes, The, under Langlade, 254, 255- France, the partial sympathy of, for the Americans, 7; mentioned, 95, 207, 334, 348. Francis Ebenezer, father of Col. Ebenezer, 211. Francis, Col. Ebenezer, killed, 211; biographical notice of, 211-213; mentioned, 329, 332, 350. 382 Index. Francis, Rachel Whitemore, mother of Col, Ebenezer, 211; her grief at the loss of her son, 212, 213. Fraser, Lieut. Alexander, sent to head off the Americans, 107; sent to reconnoiter, 122; biographical notice of, 122-123. Fraser, Gen. Simon, took possession of Mount Hope, 19, 202; succeeded by Balcarres, 87; Riedesel sent to help him, 217; sent his prisoners to Ticonderoga, 219; praised by Burgoyne, 224, 225; bravery of, 274; advised Burgoyne to advance, 275; wounded, 287- 290; died, 293-296; burial of, 296; mentioned, 16, 30, 31, 32, 37. 38, 39> 40, 41, 111, 122, 140, 161, 177, 193, 207, 208, 220, 223, 224, 235, 236, 251,329, 344. Fraser, Lieut.-Col. Simeon, had charge of the troops that sailed from Cork, 4; sent to reconnoiter, 142; returned with but little information, 143; took a prisoner, 174; killed, 335; biographical no- tice of, 83; mentioned, 109, 193. 300, 352. Frazier, see Fraser. Frederick, Prince, 197. Freeman's Farm, the battle of, Lieut. Scott at, 123; Lieut. Craig wounded at, 167; Lieut. Lucas killed at, 332; Lieut. Cooke killed at, 332; Captain Lind wounded at, 332, 333; Capt. Stanley wounded at, 332, 335; Maj. Agnew wounded at, 337; Ensign Taylor killed at, 342; Capt. Swet- tenham wounded at, 347; Capt. Ramsey wounded at, 348; Lieut. Prince wounded at, 352; Capt. Jones killed at, 325; mentioned, 30. French, declaration of war of the, 322. Frothingham, the Hon. Rich- ard, his Siege of Boston, cited, 1 14, 156, 247. Gage, Gen. Thomas, charac- terized the Americans as lawless, 3-4; mentioned, 318, 319. Gansevoort, Gen. Peter, had a flag made for Fort Schuy- ler, 19, 161; biographical notice of, 19. Gardner, Capt. Henry Faring- ton, sent with dispatches to England, 222, 223, 226; biographical notice of, 222- 223. Garneau, Francis Xavier, his History of Canada, cited, 85, 86, 184, 254. Gates, Gen. Horatio, super- seded Gen. Schuyler, 29, 242; tardy with reinforce- ments, 30; refused to make a night attack, 32, 291; encamped south of Fish Creek, 44; Burgoyne proposed a treaty of surrender, 47, 57- Index. 383 58, 259, 306; accused by Burgoyne of sending part of his troops to Albany, 47, 48; his army in order of battle, 48; treaty signed, 48; alarmed by information of Clinton's progress, 49, 50; blamed for too liberal concessions, 50; the surrender, 50, 51; delayed in sending information of the surrender to Washington, 50-51; remarks of La Fayette concerning, 51; asked concerning the military chests and colors, 54-55; carelessness in regard to the surrender, 55-56; offered the command at Ticonderoga, 168, 204, 218; confidence of Congress in, 168, 169; letter to General Schuyler, 172; letters to and from Burgoyne, 237, 259-265, 296, 306, 308, 309; met Madam Riedesel, 242; defended his soldiers from the accusation of inhumanity, 261-263; accused Burgoyne of employing Indians, 262; proposed to Morgan to desert Washing- ton, 271; his revenge, 271; compared to Burgoyne, 274; orders of, 281-284; met Lady Acland, 298-299; sent message to Burgoyne by Maj. Kingston, 307; annoyed by the delay, 311; articles of convention given in full, 312-317; met Bur- goyne, 49, 320-321; returns of his army, 354; biograph ical notice of, 168-171; mentioned, 37, 70, 269, 281, 301,307,309, 311, 315, 316, 319-323,342. Gentleman's Magazine, The, cited, 104, 199, 333. George I, grandfather of Sir William Howe, 155. George III, determined to chastise the colonists, 5; applied for help to Cathe- rine of Russia, Germany and Holland, 5,6; bitter feeling against, 6, 7; elated at the capture of Ticonderoga, 21; hired German troops, 110; fell into agonies at hearing of the surrender of Bur- goyne, 318; mentioned, 199, 229, 322. George III, Journal of the Reign of, see Walpole, Horace. Georgia, Capt. Durnford in, 346. Georgian Era, The, cited, 290. Germaine, Lord George, designated Washington as "Mr.," 3; criticised Gen. Carleton, 13; letters to Carleton, 14, 238, 258; elated at the capture of Ticonderoga, 20, 21; letters from Burgoyne, 21, 24-27, 323; said Gen. Howe had ruined his plans, 64-65; assailed, 66; hostile to Burgoyne, 66-67; published a pamphlet against Burgoyne, 384 Index. 69; the sacrifice of Burgoyne's army due to a blunder of, 70, 322; obliged to retire from office, 70; the capture of Waterbury re- ported to, 163; minister for American affairs,- 237; character of, 238; advised the employment of Indians, 237-238; compared to Dr. Sangrado, 238; conduct of, in Germany, 239; detested by his associates, 239; Luttrell and Wilkes on, 239; planned the campaign, 258; mentioned, 65, 314. German troops, the, hired to assist George III, 6; the people of England opposed to hiring them, 6, 7; feeling of the Americans against, 110-111; feeling in Ger- many against, III; behavior of, 250-252; deserted, 256; equipments of, 260; consid- eration of their ability, 288- 289, 303; not cowardly, 289. Germantown, the battle of, Gen. Sullivan at, 10. Germany, asked to assist George III, 6, 7; Gen. Phillips won distinction in, 174; Lord Germaine in, 239; Maj. Agnew in, 337; mentioned, 95, 122, 123, 334, see Ger- man troops, the. Gibralter, Lieut. Scott in, 123; Capt. Craig born at, 166; Capt. Scott in, 181; Col. Wright at, 245; Captain Green born in, 277; Maj. Williams at, 287; Capt. Bowling at, 334; Capt. Stanley at, 335; Capt. Farquar at, 335; Maj. Agnew at, 337- Glover, Gen. John, advanced money to Burgoyne, 59; biographical notice of, 59- 62. Glover's Marblehead Regiment, 59-60. Gondola, the, used by Carleton, described, 11. Gordon, Gen. Patrick, shot by Whitcomb, 128-131; indig- nation in the British army concerning his death, 130, 132; feeling in the Ameri- can army concerning, 130; Lieut. Currie served under, 336; biographical notice of, 128-130; mentioned, 131. Grafton, The, 151. Graham, James, his Life of Col. Daniel Morgan, cited, 207, 271. Grahame, the Rev. James, his History of the United States, cited, in. Grampus, The, 59. Grant, Cornet James, his unsuccessful attempt to reach Gen. Clinton, 248, 346; taken prisoner, 339; biographical notices of, 248, 346. Grant, Maj. Robert, killed, 210, 211; biographical no- tice of, 210-21 1; mentioned, 335. 337- Grant, , commander of the Connecticut, 163. Index. 385 Great Britain, Florida ceded to, 104, 347; Louisiana ceded to, 351; mentioned, vi, 119, 176, 178, 188, 189, 191, 199, 259, 313. Green, Captain Charles, wounded, 277, 278; bio- graphical notice of, 277- 278. Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, St. Clair served under, 219; mentioned, 10. Greenland, 95. Grenada, Capt. Green coast governor of, 278. Grenville, Lord, 313. Grimes, commander of the Jersey, 163. Grout, Abigail, married Col. Hale, 215. Hadden, Gen. James M., his Journal and Orderly Books, see Rogers, Col. Horatio. Haggart, Lieut. James, killed, 342; biographical notice of, 347- Haight Hall, death of Gen. Carleton at, 87. Hakluyt, Richard, his Voyages, cited, 97. Halcyon Days of Old England, The, 319. Haldemann, Gen. Sir Fred- erick, lost Ticonderoga, 127. Hale, Moses, father of Col. Nathan, 215. Hale, Col. Nathan, taken pris- oner, 215; biographical no- tice of, 215-216. Half Moon, the camp at, 266. 49 Haliburton, Thomas C, his History of Nova Scotia, cited, 137. Halifax, German colors sent to, 55; Lord Cornwallis governor of, 169; men- tioned, 137, 167, 182. Hall, Hiland, LL.D., his His- tory of Vermont, cited, 194. Hamilton, Gen. James Inglis, proposed exchange of, 108; biographical notice of, 196, 197; mentioned, 337. Hampshire Grants, the, 24. Hampstead, N. H., Col. Hale born at, 215. Hampton, N. H., 38. Hancock, John, 85. Harnage, Major Henry, wounded, 337, 340, 341; biographical notice of, 344- 345; mentioned, 272, 294, 296. Harnage, Mrs., 339. Harris, Capt. John Adolphus, wounded, 33 1; biographical notice of, 331-332. Harrisburg, Va., vi, 127. Hartford, Conn., 300. Hartley, Maj. Thomas, in command at Crown Point, 165; accused of cruelty, 172; biographical notice of, 165- 166; mentioned, 138. Harvey, Lieutenant Stephen, killed, 336; biographical no- tice of, 340-341. Harvey, see also Hervey. Havana, Ligonier in the expedition against, 234; Sutherland in the expedition 386 Index. against, 310: Blomefield at the capture of. 326 : Harris served in, 331; mentioned, 155- Havre de Grace, Blomefield at the bombardment of, 326. Hawley, commander of the Royal Savage, 163. Hazel nuts in abundance, 98. Heartley, sec Hartley. Heath, Gen. William, urged the hasty removal of the British convention prisoners from Boston, 51-52; letters from Washington to, 52, 108; complicated affairs concern- ing furnishing rations to the troops, 53; confined Gen. Phillips to the limits of his house and garden, 175; bio- graphical notice of, 61-62; the Memoirs of, cited, 62, 175- Heights of Abraham, the, St. Clair at, 218; mentioned. 84. _ Hendricks, 134. Henry, John Joseph, his Campaign against Quebec, cited, 1 lO1, 108, 134. Henry Patrick, a letter of. cited. 51. Henry, The, missing, 91. Herriot, George, his Travels through Canada, cited, 90. 1 Hervey, Earl. General Bur- goyne's letter to, cited, 204. Hervey, Ensign George, wounded, 337 : biograph- ical notice of. 345; men- tioned, 272. I Hesse Hanau Regiment, The 197. Hewitt's Tavern, 247. Higby, Dr. Moses. 34. Hill, Lieut.-Col. John, the colors of his regiment presented to the king. 56; before Fort Anne, 224; biographical notice of, 224, 225. Hinton. J. H., his History- of the United States, cited, 127, 137- Historical Magazine. The, cited, 175, 299, Historical Record of the Fifty-sixth Foot. The, cited, 335. Historical Record of the Fifty-third Foot, The, cited, 2, 203, 245, 332. Historical Record of the First Foot, The, cited, 235. Historical Record of the Forty-seventh Foot, The, cited, 182, 335. Historical Record of the Forty-sixth Foot, The, cited, 156. Historical Record of the Ninth Foot. The, cited, 56, 221.222,225, 235, 329, 347. Historical Record of the Sixty-second Foot, The, cited, 330, 344. Historical Record of the Thirty-first Foot. The, cited. 150. Historical Record of the Thirty-fourth Foot, The, cited; 332, 333. Index. 387 Historical Record of the Thirty-third Foot, The, cited, 336. Historical Record of the Twentieth Foot, The, cited, 333, 334- Historical Record of the Twenty-first Foot, The, cited, 312, 336, 349. Historical Record of the Twenty-fourth Foot, The, cited, 337, 338. Historical Record of the Twenty-ninth Foot, The, cited, 330. History of England, The, see Adolphus, John; Knight, Charles, and Mahon, Lord. History of the Siege of Boston, The, see Frothingham, Richard. History of the United States, see Graham, the Rev. James. Hodgson, Maj.-Gen., at Belle Isle, 207. Holland refused to assist George HI, 6. Hollister, G. H., his History of Connecticut, cited, 86. Hope, The, bound for England, 103. Hopkins, Commodore Esek, sailed for the Delaware, 161; displayed the rattle- snake flag on his vessel, 161. Horner, Elizabeth, married Stephen Fox, 338. Horner, Thomas Strangeways, 338. Houghton, Lieut. Charles, death of, 109; biographical notice of, 109. Houghton, Lieut. Richard, killed, 202; biographical notice of, 202-203. Howarth, Lieut. Edward, wounded, 325; biographical notice of, 327-328. Howe, General Lord George Augustus, fell at Ticonderoga, 156, 241, 258; succeeded by his brother Richard, 156; a friend of Gen. Schuyler, 156, 241. Howe, Gen. Lord Richard, death of, 156; biograph- ical notice of, 156; men- tioned, 319; Narrative of his Transactions, cited, 322. Howe, Gen. Sir William, addressed a letter to Washington as "Mr.," 3; obliged to recognize Washington with his appropriate title, 3; at New York, 19; to meet Burgoyne at Albany, 19, 24, 26, 64, 65, 188; prepared an expedition to Philadelphia, 19, 25; message from him intercepted, 25; Burgoyne waited to hear from him, 26, 258; failed to send Clinton to help Burgoyne, 27, 28; compared to Burgoyne, 72; the reason for his not co-operating with Burgoyne, 72, 321, 322; unfairly treated, 74; his char- 388 Index. acter, 74-75; bad news from, 155; commander in chief, 187, 246; with the Southern army, 188; superseded by Clinton, 246; to be notified of Burgoyne's surrender, 316; unpopular, 321-322; biographical notice of, 155-156; mentioned, 58, 70, 115, 258, 313, 318, 319; the Narrative Relating to his Command in America, cited, 71, 322. Hubbardton, the battle of, Balcarres wounded at, 86 Craig wounded at, 167 Francis wounded at, 212 the victory of, of no great benefit to the English, 227; Jones wounded at, 330; Harris wounded at, 331; Shrimpton wounded at, 350; mentioned, 246, 284, 331, 350. Hubberton, see Hubbardton. Huberton, see Hubbardton. Hudson River, the, Schuyler's army encamped near, 22; forts on, held by the Americans, 19; crossed by Burgoyne's troops, 28, 249, 267; Clinton about to ascend, 33; recrossed by Burgoyne, 41, 302; the army near, 240; mentioned, 19, 36, 42, 45, 47, 71, 244, 247, 252, 253, 260, 266, 276, 277, 283, 321. Hudson's Bay, 93. Huggart, see Haggart. Hull, 341- Humphreys, 134. Hundertmark, George, shot for desertion, 256. Hunterdon County, N. J., 270. Huntington, 163. Hutchinson, 61. Hurons, the, probably fought the Iroquois at Ticonderoga, 127. Inchbald, Elizabeth, her The Heiress, cited, 66. India, Lieut. Scott in, 124. Indians, the, join the British army, 120-121, 228-229; conduct of, 121; their canoes described, 123-125; their cruelty to prisoners, 135, 136, 174, 235, 244, 262, 280, 359; in ambush, 143- 144; their silent paddling, 143; their ability to move quickly through thick forests, 154; painted a cap tured prisoner, 174; commanded by Francis, 193; ordered not to scalp prisoners, 200, 359; victorious in small skirmishes, 201, 243; caused the death of Houghton, 202; murdered Miss McCrea, 235; committed depredations on the Tories, 236; the employment of, disliked by Burgoyne, 237, 238-239; employment of, advised by Germaine, 238-239; commanded by St. Luc, 253; prepared to desert, 253- 255, 284; commanded by Index. 389 Langlade, 254-255; Gates' opinion of, 262, 263; their lack of true courage, 280; new recruits of, from Can- ada, 285; speech to, from Burgoyne, 356-360; men- tioned, 250, see Savages. Inflexible, The, described, 151; commanded by Schank,i52; mentioned, 18, 120, 152, 201. Innuits, original name of the Esquimaux, 93. Ilchester, Lord, 338. Iphigenie, The, captured the Ceres, 139. Ireland. Digby on duty in, vi, 2; troops sailed from, 3, 9, 129; Gen. Thompson a native of, 107; Capt. Scott in, 181; L'Estrange in, 182; Capt. Wright in, 245; Capt. Green in, 278; Capt. Harris in, 331; Lieut. Cullen in, 332; Lieut. Cooke in, 332; Col. Lind in, 333; Capt. Bowling in, 334; Capt. Sweetenham in, 347; Capt. Stapleton in, 347; Lieut. Rowe in, 348; mentioned, 85, 99, 329. Iroquois, the, tortured prison- ers, 121; probably fought the Hurons at Ticonderoga, 127; speech of their chief to Burgoyne, 360-361; mentioned, 116. Iroquois River, the, now called the Sorel, 103. Irvine, Col. William, before Quebec, 107-108; Capt. Wilson served under, 126; Capt. Adams served under, 137- Irving, Washington, his Life of Washington, cited, 60, 171. Isis, The, 104. Island Amott, see Isle la Motte. Island of Coudres, see Isle- aux-Coudres. Island of Nuts, 125, see Isle- aux-Coudres. Island of Orleans, see Isle of Bacchus. Island of St. Paul, 91. Isle-aux-Coudres, so named by Cartier, 98; Digby an- chored off the, 102; de- scribed, 102; earthquake at, 102; Lieut. Houghton killed at the, 109; called Island of Nuts, 125. Isle-aux-Noix, described, 134- 135; named by Champlain, 135; mentioned, 11, 13, 117, 125, 137, 138, 142, 152, 154, 170. Isle d'Aix, captured, 333, 334- Isle la Motte, the, Scott cruising off, 143; described, 143; named for Sieur la Mothe, 143; McCoy cap- tured on, 145; Gen. Eraser at, 178. Isle of Bacchus, name given to the present Island of Orleans by Cartier, 103. Isle of Guernsey, Gen. Am herst governor of, 136. 390 Index. Isle of Wight, the, Sir William Howe, Lieut.-governor of, 155- Isles aux Oyseaux, described, 92. Jackson's Creek, 142. Jamaica, Dacres in command at, 140; Salons in, 353. Jealousy between the English and German troops, 250. Jefferson, Thomas, entertained Gen. Phillips, 175; mentioned, 39. Jefferson, Thomas, Life of, see Randolph, Thomas Jefferson. Jersey, The, captured, 162; commanded by Grimes, 163. Jessop, see Jessup. Jessup, Ebenezer, biographical notice of, 194, 195. Jessup, Edward, biographical notice of, 194-195. Jessup, Prof. Henry G., 195. Jesuits, the, 121. Jogues, Pere Isaac, visited and named Lake George, 214. John of Gaunt, granted man- ors to the Burgoyne family, 114. Johnson, Sir John, accom- panied St. Leger, 257; the inhumanity of his regiment, 257; the Orderly Books of, cited, 257. Johnson, Ensign William, taken prisoner, 330; noth- ing known of his subsequent fate, 330. Johnson, Gen. William, named Lake George, 214; at Fort Miller, 244. Johnson's Royal Green's, in- humanity of, 257. Johnston, see Johnson. Jones, Charles H., his Con- quest of Canada, cited, 103, 117, 137, 144, 166. Jones, David, concerned in the murder of Miss McCrea, 235; to marry her, 236. Jones, Lieut. John, wounded, 329; biographical notice of, 329-330. Jones, Capt. Thomas, killed, 324; biographical notice of, 324-325. Jones, Thomas, his History of New York, cited, 194. Jordan, John W., vi. Josselyn, John, his Two Voyages to New England, cited, 103. Journals and Letters of Curwen, see Curwen, Samuel. Journals and Orderly Books of Gen. Hadden, see Rogers, Col. Horatio. Journals du Voyage de M. Saint-Luc de la Corne, cited, 254. Journal Historique, see Cartier, Jacques. Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, see Lamb, Sergeant R. Journal of the Principal Oc- currences During the Siege of Quebec, see Shortt, W. T. Index. 391 Journal of Captain Thomas Scott, cited, 124. Journal of the Reign of George III, see Walpole, Horace. Journals of Congress, The, cited, 55, 58. Kalm, Peter, 143. Kane, I., his Artillery List, cited, 206, 207, 287. Kensington; Henry, v, vii. Kent, England, 135, 327. Kidwally, 151. Kilmansegge, the Baroness, 155- Kingston, Canada, formerly Cataracony, 193. Kingston, N. Y., 34, 36, 46. Kingston, Robert, bearer of a message to Gates, 47, 305; biographical notice of, 305-306. Kinsale, England, 339. Knight, Charles, his Pictorial History of England, cited, 239- Laborers, Land of, 95. Labrador, origin of the name, 95; mentioned, 93. La Carne, Jean-Louis de, 253. La Carne St. Luc, Luc de Chapt de, leader of the In- dians, 24, 253; biograph- ical notice of, 253-254; mentioned, 255. La Fayette, Marquis de, re- marks concerning General Gates, 51; before Peters- burg, 175; General Poor served under, 282. Lafitau, J. P., his Moeurs des Sauvages, cited, 121. Lake Champlain, Burgoyne received recruits at, 26; Arnold as commodore on, 146, 147, 241; Pringle on, 148; Longcroft on, 151; list of the American fleet on, 162-164; controlled by the English, 173; men- tioned, 116, 119, 129, 134, 135, 175, 178, 188, 200, 214, 215,217,234. Lake George, forts on, held by the Americans, 19; com- munications to cut off from St. Clair, 19; discovered by Champlain, 214; called St. Sacrament, 214; why the name was changed, 214; cannon sent by the way of, 233; mentioned, 25, 41, 46, 227, 234, 236, 316. Lake Oneida, 18. Lake Ontario, 18, 257. Lake St. Peter, Digby at, 113; named by Champlain, 113. Lake St. Sacrament, former name of Lake George, 214. Laleham, England, 339. Lamb, Sergeant R., in charge of the wounded, 219; his Journal of Occurrences During the Late American War, cited, 34, 49, 199, 203, 220, 222, 234, 237, 245, 247, 272-273, 291, 325, 328, 330, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 341, 347, 349- Lancashire, England, 87. Land of Laborers, 95. 392 Index. Langdale, see Langlade, Charles de, Langlade, Charles de, bio- graphical notice of, 254- 255- Last Journals of Horace Wal- pole, see Walpole, Horace. Laurel Hill, St. Clair died at, 219. Lauterback, Germany, Gen. Riedesel born in, 110. Learned, Gen. Ebenezer, at- tacked Burgoyne's center, 38, 41; publicly thanked, 282; biographical notice of, 282-283; mentioned, 289. Leeds, Duke of, 168. Lee, Gen. Charles, 10. Lee, The, captured, 162; commanded by Davis, 164. Legineu, General Amherst served under, 135, Le Loup, concerned in the murder of Jane McCrea, 235- Lesdeguieres, the Duchess of, Charlevoix letters to, cited, 103, 104. L'Estrange, Capt. Richard, lost in the ice, 182; bio- graphical notice of, 182. Letter from Crown Point, A, cited, 138. Letters and Journals of Madam Riedesel, see Stone, Col. William L. Letters to the Duchess of Lesdeguieres, from Charle- voix, cited, 103-104. Levestoe, vii, sec Livingstone. Lewis, Gen. Morgan, 237. Lexington, the battle of, its effect upon the English government, 4-5; General Heath at, 62; Col. Nesbit at, 1 14; its effect upon Ar- nold, 147; its effect upon Gates, 169; L'Estrange in, 182; its effect upon Col. Hale, 216; effect upon Col. Morgan, 270; fired the military ardor of the coun- try, 282; its effect upon Gen. Poor, 282. Liberty, The, commanded by Premier, 164; mentioned, 163. Light Dragoons, the Queen's, 189, 229, 230, 231, 232, 248. Light Infantry, 211. Ligonier, Lord Edward, bio- graphical notice of, 234, 235- Ligonier, Col. Francis, father of Lord Edward, 234. Ligonier, Viscount, of Clonmel, 234. Lincoln, Francis F. C, sixth Earl of, 246. Lincolnshire, England, 298. Lind, Col. John, wounded, 332; biographical notice of, 333- Lindsay, Alexander, see Bal- carres, the Earl of. Lithy, The, missing, 91. Livingstone, Robert, a daugh- ter of, married Gen. Mont- gomery, 99. Livingstone, Gov. William, his humorous reply to Bur- Index. 193 goyne's manifesto, 192; mentioned, 142. London, 2, 4, 15, 17, 18,21,66, 74, 92, 103, 116, 140, 148, 160, 169, 171, 175,313,345. London Chronicle, The, cited, 140, 148. London Morning Post, The, 319- London, Tower of, Captain Shrimpton in command at the, 350. Long, Col., attacked by Col. Hill, 224; his defeat caused by a lack of ammunition, 225. Longcroft, Capt. Edward, at Riviere-la-Cole, 150; com- mander of the Loyal Con- vert, 152; biographical notice of, 150-15 i. Long Island, the retreat after the battle of, compared to the battle of Bunker Hill, 60; Sir Henry Clinton at, 246; Riedesel in command at, no; mentioned, 313. Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 151. Lossing, Benson J., his Field Book of the Revolution, cited, 34, 6\, 62, 166, 170- 171, 237. Louisburg, the siege of. Sir William Pepperell at, 2; New England troops at, 83; Guy Carleton at, 84; Gen. Montgomery at, 99; Sir William Howe at, 1 55; Lord Ligonier at, 234; St. Leger at, 257; Farquar at, 335. 50 Louisiana ceded to Great Britain, 351; Capt. Forbes in, 351- Louis-le-Grand, College de, 17. Loyal al Convert, The, Digby on, 150, 152; formerly belonged to the Americans, 152; commanded by Longcroft, 151- 152. Loyalists of America and their times, see Ryerson, Egerton, LL. D. Loyalists of the American Revolution, see Sabine, Lorenzo. Loyal Rangers, the, 194. Lucas, Lieut. Thomas, killed, 332; biographical notice of, 332. Lunenburg, Mass., 215. Luttrell, Temple, on Lord Germaine, 239. Lymme, England, 199. Lynd, see Lind. Maccabees, the Books of, cited, 121. McCoy, Ensign, captured, 145; before Gen. Eraser, 145-146; information, given by him, 146-147. McCrea, Jane, the story of her murder, 235-237; mentioned by Gates, 262; by Burgoyne, 264-265; The Life of, by D. Wilson, cited, 235-237- McDonald,-------, his home and mill destroyed, 138. McFarlane, William, succeeded Houghton, 109. 394 Index. McKay, Capt. Samuel, commander of the Canadians, 142; his cruelty, 142; sent by Burgoyne to open the road, 300; biographical notice of, 300. Mackenzie, Lieut. Kenneth, killed, 334; biographical notice of, 336. McKinzy, see Mackenzie. McNeil, Mrs., 235. McPherson, 134. Magazine of American History, The, cited, 112. Magdalen Islands, the, 92. Mahon, Lord, his remarks concerning Washington, 50; his History of England, cited, 51, 73, 163, 244. Maine, Arnold in, 8; Capt. Craig in, 167; mentioned, 10. Malta, Col. Greene in command at, 278. Make Brun, Konrad, cited, 89. Manchester, Va., Col. Morgan died at, 271. Manifesto of Burgoyne, 189- 192, 229; humorous replies to the, 192, 229-233. Mansfield, commanded the New Haven, 163. Marblehead, Mass., 59. Marblehead, The History and Traditions of, cited, 61. Marburg, 110. Maria, The, named for the wife of Sir Guy Carleton, 145, 148; commanded by Lieut. Starke, 151; Carleton on board, 157. Marlborough, the Duke of, Burgoyne served under, 115; mentioned, 66. Marshall, Lieut. John, his Royal Naval Biography, cited, 140. Marshall, Col. Thomas, publicly thanked, 283; biographical notice of, 283. Martinico, campaign against, Gates in the, 169; Sutherland in the, 310. Martinique, Blomfield at the capture of, 326. Massachusetts, 9, 61, 92, 114, 211, 282, 283,314,315,316. Maurepas, Jean Frederic, Comte de, fort named in honor of, 126. Medford, birthplace of Col. Francis, 211; the History of, see Brooks, the Rev. Charles. Mediterranean sea, the, Craig in service in, 167. Memoirs of Gen. Heath, see Heath, Gen. William. Memoirs of Maj.-Gen. Riedesel, see Stone, Col. William. Memoirs of My Own Times, see Wilkinson, Gen. James. Menominees, the, under de Langlade, 255. Meyrick, Dr., 117. Middlesex county, England, 339 Midhurst, represented by Burgoyne, 115. Military Journal of Thatcher, The, see Thatcher, James, M. D. Index. 395 Military Memoirs of Great Britain, The, see Beatson, Robert. Miller, Capt. Robert, his daughter married Capt. Wilson, 127. Minigo, the Indian name of the Island of Orleans, 103. "Mister," applied to Washington, 3, 15. Mobile, Ramsey at, 348; Featherstone at, 349. Mohawk river, the, forts on, held by the Americans, 19, 21; unsuccessful expedition to, 257; Fort Stanwix on, 258. Monckton, Gen. Gates his aid- de-camp, 169. Money, Gen. John, taken prisoner, 290; biographical notice of, 290-291. Monin, Capt., commander of the Canadians, 142; cruelty of, 142; death of, 142; mentioned, 193. Monmouth, battle of, Gen. Poor at, 282; mentioned, 39- Monning, Capt., see Monin, Capt. Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de, erected works at St. Johns, 116; at Ticon- deroga, 127, 204; erected Fort George, 227. Montgomery, Capt. William Stone, wounded and taken a prisoner, 220, 221, 225, 348; biographical notice of, 221-222. Montgomery, Gen. Richard, joined by Arnold, 8; army of, wasted by disease and exposure, 8; unsuccessful attack upon Quebec, 8, 99, 325; known to Carleton, 84; captured Trois Rivieres, 84; captured Forts St. Johns and Chambly, 116, 300; his coffin, 134; suc- ceeded Schuyler,, 241; bio- graphical notice of, 99-101; mentioned, 3, 9, 19, 102, 253. Montgomery, Sir William, father of Capt. William, 221, 222. Montreal, held by Arnold, 10; Burgoyne at, 15, 120; Gor- don buried at, 129; cap- tured, 253; mentioned, 13, 86, 106, 116, 122, 129, 131, 176, 178, 183. Montreal, Island of, 120. Mordant, Gen. Sir John, accompanied by Capt. Weymis, 333. Morgan, Gen. Daniel, attacked Fraser, 38; attacked the British right flank, 38; one of his sharpshooters wounded Fraser, 39-40; advanced on the enemy, 270; caused great havoc, 272; his retreat, 273; biographical notice of, 270- 272; mentioned, 30. Morgan, Gen. Daniel, Life of, see Graham, James, and Cooke, John Esten. Morton, the Earl of, ancestor of Sir Charles Douglass, 104. 396 Index. Mothe, Sieur la, erected a fort, 143; island named for him, 143. Mott, Samuel, 254. Mount Defiance, occupied by Burgoyne, 218; remarks of Washington concerning, 219; mentioned, 204; see Sugar-loaf hill. Mount Hope, occupied by Fraser, 19. Mount Independence, origin of the name, 208; retreat from, 208-210; mentioned, 214, see Fort Independ- ence. Mount Vernon, Gen. Gates at, 169. "Mr.", applied to Washington, 3, 15. Murray, Lieutenant James, wounded, 349; biographi- cal notice of, 352. Musselburgh, Scotland, 104. Namur, The, 150. Nantucket, Sir Isaac Coffin a native of, 92. Narrative of his Conduct in America, by Sir Henry Clinton, cited, 247. Narrative of Lieut.-Gen. Sir William Howe, cited, 71. Naticousti, former name of Anticosti, 97. National Library at Washington, vi. Natiscotes, former name of Anticosti, 97. Naval History of Great Brit- ain, see Brenton, Edward P. Naylor, Lieut. William Pen- dred, taken prisoner, 337; biographical notice of, 345- 346. Neilson, Charles, his Account of Burgoyne's Campaign, cited, 235, 237. Nesbit, Col., ill-treated prisoners, 108. Nesbit, Gen. William, in command before Fort Sorel, 114; succeeded by Sutherland, 310. New Britain, 93. New Brunswick, Capt. Ram- say in, 349. New England, to be separated from the south and west, 14; to furnish supplies to oppose Burgoyne, 15; to be attacked by Burgoyne, 21, 321; troops of, at Louis- burgh, 83; troops under Amherst, 135. Newfoundland, early fishing on the banks of, 90; called Baccalaos and Codlands, 90; described, 92-93; mentioned, 88, 89, 91. New Hampshire, 10, 38, 216, 282. New Hampshire Historical So- ciety Collections, cited, 233. New Haven, Arnold a druggist in, 147. New Haven, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Mansfield, 163. New Jersey, William Living- stone governor of, 192; mentioned, 10, 270. Index. 397 Newport, Gen. Sullivan at the siege of, l0; permission not granted for the British troops to depart from, 53; Burgoyne embarked from, 59. New Travels in the United States of America by J. P. B. de Warville, cited, 62. New York, city, Howe and Clinton in, 19; Clinton in command at, 25; Burgoyne received no help from, 26; Gen. Gates died at, 171; prison ships at, 232; inducements offered for recruits in, 247; mentioned, 246, 346. New York State, vi, 8, 14, 19, 61, 99, 169, 194, 195, 241, 282. New York, The History of, see Jones, Thomas, and Dunlap, William. New York, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Reed, 163. New York Council of Safety, censured St. Clair, 219, New York, Documents Relat- ing to the Colonial History of, see O'Callaghan, E. B., LL.D. Niagara river, the, 39. Nicholson, Col., built Fort Anne, 221. Nineteenth Light Dragoons, 156. Ninety-fifth Foot, 257. Ninety-first Foot, 124, 290. Ninth Battalion, 326. Ninth Dragoons, 221. Ninth Foot, 221, 224,234, 290, 329,347,348,351,352,353; Historical Record of the, cited, 221-222, 225, 235, 329, 347- Ninth Regiment, the colors of the, concealed, 56; mentioned, 122, 196, 221. Noel, M., translated Anburey's Travels Through the Interior Parts of America, 17. Norfolk militia, the, 290. Normands, the, 103. Normandy, 179. North Britain, 189, 229. North, Lord Frederick, re- sponsible for hiring the German troops, 7; repre- hended Burke and Fox for eulogizing Montgom- ery, 101; mentioned, 65, 318. North river, the, 321, see Hud- son river. North sea, the, 93. North-western territory, St. Clair governor of the, 219. Norwich, Conn., birthplace of Benedict Arnold, 146. Norwich, England, John Money a native of, 290. Nottingham, England, Gen. Howe a representative of, 155-156. Nova Scotia, 92; the History of, see Haliburton, Thomas C. Nutt, Lieut. George Anson, biographical notice of, 195. 398 Index. Obins, Lieut. Hamlet, killed, 332; biographical notice of, 332-333- O'Callaghan, Edmund B., LL. D., his edition of Bur- goyne's Orderly Books, cited, 124, 195, 196, 199, 237, 256, 330, 335, 339,347; his Colonial History of New York, cited, 257; his Docu- ments Relating to the Colonial History of New York, cited, 254, 257. One Hundred and Eighth Foot, 129. One Hundred and Fifth Foot, 351- One Hundred and Second Foot, 351. One Hundred and Thirteenth Royal Highland Volunteers, 196. Orderly Books of Burgoyne, the, see O'Callaghan, Ed- mund B., LL. D. Orleans, Island of, Digby at, 103; called Minigo, 103; called Isle of Bacchus, 103. Orne, Capt., 59. Oswego, St. Leger retired to, 256. Ottawa, vi. Ottawas, the, join the British, 228; under Langland, 254- 255. Oughton, Lieut.-Gen., Capt. Greene served under, 278. Our Commanders, 319. Oxford, Mass., Gen. Learned died at, 283. Oyseaux, Isles aux, described, 92. Palmer, Lieut., concerned in the killing of Miss McCrea, 216. Palmer, P. S., his History of Lake Champlain, cited, 217, 218-219. Paris, 103. Parker, Sir Peter, his expedition against Charleston, 195. Parsons, Usher, M. D., his Life of Sir William Pepperell, cited, 2. Patterson, Col., a messenger for Gen. Howe, 3. Pausch, 183. Pearl, The, 83. Peekskill, 72. Peninsular war, the, Lieut. Howarth in, 328. Pennsylvania, Howe's expe- dition to, 25; mentioned, 107, 108, 126, 137, 138, 165, 166, 218, 219, 270. Pennsylvania Historical Society, vi. Pennsylvania Sixth Regi- ment, 126. Pennsylvania State Library, vi, 127, 138. Pensacola, 149. Pepperell, Sir William, formed a regiment, 2; at Louis- burgh, 2; knighted, 2; death of, 2; The Life of, see Parsons, Usher, M. D. Percy, Lord, Craig served under, 166. Index. 399 Petersburgh, Va., Gen. Phillips died at, 175, Peters, John, father of Lieut.- Col. John, 193. Peters, Lieut.-Col. John, in command of the provincial Tory corps, 193; biographical notice of, 193. Peters, the Rev. Samuel, 193. Petershaw, Lord, 129. Philadelphia, Gen. Howe prepared an expedition against, 19, 64; St. Clair in command at, 219; evacu- ated by Clinton, 246; men tioned, 35, 64, 101, 247. Philadelphia, The, sunk, 162; commanded by Rice, 163. Phillips, Ensign Levinge Cosby, killed, 336; bio- graphical notice of, 342- 343- Phillips, Gen. William, before Ticonderoga, 19; his orders concerning Whitcomb, 133; advised Carleton to ad- vance, 172; reconnoitered the enemy's lines, 174-175; in command at Montreal, 184; advised Burgoyne to advance, 275; Capt. Greene under, 278; Bloomfield served under, 325-326; bio- graphical notice of, 174- 175; mentioned, 16, 18, 30, 37, 42, 243, 294. Pickering, Charles, M. D., his Races of Men and their Geographical Distribution, cited, 95. Pigeons plenty, 152. Pilot, Capt. Henry, brother- in-law of Digby, 149; bio- graphical notice of, 149- Pixton, Maj. Acland died at, 112. Placentia, Bay of, 91. Playfair, William, his British Family Antiquary, cited, 104, 1 16, 222, 327. Plymouth, England, fleet from, 88; Sir William Howe, governor of, 156. Plymouth, Mass., 9. Point au Faire, see Point au Fer. Point au Fer, blockhouse erected on, 152; mentioned, 153, 148, 177. Political Index to the His- tories of Great Britain, see Beatson, Robert. Poor, Daniel, grandfather of Gen. Enoch, 282. Poor, Gen. Enoch, attacked the British left, 38; publicly thanked, 282, biographical notice of, 282. Poor, Thomas, father of Enoch, 282. Port Andre, 207. Port Neuf, Digby at, 105. Portsmouth, England, 59. Portugal, Burgoyne and Gard- ner in, 222; mentioned, 39. Potton, England, granted to the Burgoyne family, 10. Powell, Gen. Henry Watson, in command at Ticon- deroga, 285; biographical notice of, 196-199. 400 Index. Powell's Brigade, i8i, 337. Prairie, La, 129. Premier, , commander of The Liberty, 164. Prentis, Capt., 133, 134. Preston, Burgoyne the repre- sentative of, 6'j, 115. Prince Society, the publica- tion of, cited, 127. Prince, Lieutenant William, wounded, 349; biographi- cal notice of, 352. Princess Amelia, The, 150. Pringle, Capt. Thomas, com- modore of Lake Champlain, 148, 152, 157-158; bio- graphical notice of, 148; mentioned, 139, 164. Prospect Hill, Boston, the quarters of the British troops, 49-50. Providence, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Simonds, 163. Public Records Office, 4. Putnam, Gen. Israel, in the Highlands, 25. Putnam's Creek, 201. Quaker Springs, 30. Quebec, Carleton took refuge in, 8, 13, 16; daring attack upon, 8, 99; Gen. Thomas before, 9; Burgoyne at, 14, 104; Dearborn in the assault of, 38; New England troops at, 83; Carleton, governor of, 84; the attempt to storm, 99; Digby at, 104; Gen. Nesbit died at, 114; Sir William Howe at, 155; Craig at, 167; mentioned, vi, 3, 70, 83, 92, 98, 99, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 116, 122, 135. 139. 151. 152, 173, 176, 180, 182, 183, 198, 222, 228, 230, 254, 257, 271, 325, 332, 335, 336, 341; Journal of the Principal Occurrences During the Siege of, see Shortt, W. T. Queen's Loyal Americans, the regiment of the, the in- humanity of, 257, Queen's Ranger Huzzars, the, 247. Queen's Regiment of Light Dragoons, the, 189,-229. Races of Men and their Geographical Distribution, see Pickering, Charles, M. D. Radeau, a, described, 11. Ramsay, David, M.D., his His- tory of the American Revo- lution, cited, 101, 108, 244. Ramsay, Captain Malcolm, wounded, 344; biographi- cal notice of, 348-349. Randolph, Thomas Jefferson, his Life of Thomas Jeffer- son, cited, 175. Raphoe, Ireland, Gen. Mont- gomery a native of, 99. Read, Captain, 59. Reading, Pa., Hartley a native of, 165. Reed, Lieut.-Col. James, com- manded the New York, 163; mentioned, 216. Reed, Joseph, a letter from Washington to, cited, 63-64 Index. 401 Reflection on the Fast, 318. Registers of Westminster Abbey, cited, 116. Remembrances of Public Events, The, cited, 1 16, 291, 306. Revenge, The, commanded by Seaman, 163; mentioned, 162, Revolutionary Record, The, cited, 166. Reynell, Anne, wife of Lieut. Reynell, followed her hus- band to America, 339; her children, 339. Reynell, Baron Richard Littleton, 339. Reynell, Samuel, 339. Reynell, Sir Thomas, 339. Reynell, Lieut. Thomas, killed, 336; biographical notice of, 339-340. Reynell, Thomas, Jr., 339. Reynels, see Reynell. Rhinebeck, Gen. Montgomery settled at, 99. Rhinehesse, Riedesel born in, 110. Rhode Island troops, the, com- manded by Gen. Sullivan, 10. Rice, commander of The Phila- delphia, 163. Richardson, Captain, 90. Richelieu, Cardinal, 103. Richelieu river, the, formerly called the River of the Iro- quois and the Sorel, 103; mentioned, 116, 135. Richmond, the Duke of, his letter to Lord Rockingham, cited, 65. 51 Riedesel, Baron Friedrich Adolph, before Fort Inde- pendence, 19; his contempt for the American prison- ers, 108; marched toward Skeensborough, 217; sup- posed jealousy concerning, 217; to sustain Fraser, 223- 224; sent to Bennington, 248, 250; the romantic at- tachment of his wife, 268; return of the troops under, 355; biographical notice of, 110-111; mentioned. 16, 18, 30, 31. 36, 37. 46, 48, 88, 119, 184, 260, 293, 329, 339; Memoirs, Letters and Journals of, during his resi- dence in America, see Stone, Col. William L. Riedesel, Baroness Frederica Louisa, her romantic attach- ment for her husband, 268; mentioned, 48, 339; her Letters and Journals relat- ing to the war of the Amer- ican Revolution, see Stone, Col. William L. Rindge, N. H., History of, see Stearns, Ezra S. Rindge, N. H., home of Col. Hale, 216; a company of minute men formed in, 216. Riviere la Colle, 148, 149, 150. Riviere Sable, Digby at, 173. Robertson, Lieut. John James, killed, 334; biographical notice of, 337. Rochfort, the expedition against, 333. 402 Index. Rockingham, Lord, letter to, from the Duke of Rich- mond, cited, 65. Rodney, Admiral, Longcraft served under, 150-15 1; Blomfield served under, 326. Rogers, Col. Horatio, his edi- tion of Hadden's Journal and Orderly Book, cited, vi, 83, 86, 108, 112, 115, 128, 130, 134, 148, 180, 181, 184, 193, 194, 195, 199,203, 206, 207, 216, 223, 227-228, 254, 291, 298, 299,325,328, 338, 351. Rome, N. Y., the site of Fort Stanwix, 258. Rowe, Lieut. John, wounded, 342; biographical notice of, 348. Roxbury, Mass., 9, 39, 61, 62. Royal Americans, the,. Gates a major in, 169. Royal Artillery, Phillips a captain in the, 174; men- tioned, 278, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329. Royal Artillery, History of, see Duncan, F. Royal Engineers, the, 337, 346. Royal George, The, 18, 201, 223. Royal Greens, Johnson's, in- humanity of, 257. Royal Highland Emigrants, the, 331. Royal Irish Dragoons, the, 338. Royal Naval Biography, see Marshall, Lieut. John. Royal Regiment of New York, the inhumanity of, 257. Royal Savage, The, built by Arnold, 158; destroyed, 158-159, 162, 177; com- manded by Hawley, 163; mentioned, 145. Russia, 5. Rutherford, Lieut. Richard, wounded, 334; biograph- ical notice of, 337. Ryerson, Egerton, LL. D., his Loyalists of America and their Times, cited, 244, 306. Sabine, Lorenzo, his Loyal- ists of the American Rev- olution, cited, 194, 243- 244. Sacs, the, under de Langlade, 254-255. St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, his communication with Lake George cut off, 19; at Ti- conderoga, 19; surprised by the British, 20; retreated, leaving his stores behind, 20; the retreat disclosed, 20; failed to hold his po- sition, 170, 174; in com- mand at Ticonderoga, 204; his want of foresight, 204; Burgoyne on, 204; at Cas- tletown, 218; censured, 218; before Congress, 241-242; biographical notice of, 218- 219. St. Dennis, Digby at, 116. St. Johns, see Fort St. Johns. Index. 403 St. Lawrence, Gulf of, described, 91-92; full of ice, 104. St. Lawrence river, 10, 18,92, 93, 96, 97, 102, 120, 178, 180, 181. St. Leger, Lieut.-Col. Barry, to make a division on the Mohawk, 15; detached to Fort Schuyler, 18; at Fort Schuyler, 23, 161; retreat of, 27; at Oswego, 256; to meet Burgoyne at Albany, 257-258; fine conduct of, 258; joined by McKay, 300; biographical notice of, 256- 257; mentioned, 28. St. Luc, see La Carne St. Luc, Luc de Chapt de. St. Malo, Burgoyne at the attack of, 115; Hamilton at, 196. St. Maurice river, 106. St. Paul, Island of, 91. St. Sacrament, Lake, former name of Lake George, 214. Salem, 59. Salons, Baron Alexander, wounded, 349; biographical notice of, 352-353. Saratoga, Burgoyne encamped at, 28; mentioned, vii, 58, 302, 303, 309, 314, 317, 323, 333, 338, 344, 345, 349, 352, 353- Saratoga, the battle of, Lieut. Wright killed at, 329; men- tioned, 39. Saratoga, Heights of, held by the Americans, 42; Burgoyne on the, 267, 300. Saratoga, name given by Gen. Morgan to his farm, 271. Saratoga, a pseudonym, signed to the humorous manifesto, 233. Saunders, F., vi. Saunders, William, captured, 131- Savages join the British army, 120-121; described, 121; see Indians. Scaling a gun described, 154. Scalping among the Scythians, 121; see under Indians. Schank, Lieut., commanded the Inflexible, 152. Schiller, Johann Christoph, upbraided the Germans for sending troops to America, 6. Schuyler, Gen. Phillip, commander of the American army, 19; laid hindrances in the way of Burgoyne, 22; his army encamped on the Mohawk and Hudson, 22; superseded by Gates, 29; his diary cited, 31; his mansion the head-quarters of Burgoyne, 42; took charge of Mme. Riedesel and her children, 48, 242; friend of George Augustus, Lord Howe, 156; to him belongs the honor of Burgoyne's defeat, 170; Gates envious of, 170; let- ter from Gates, 172; as- signed Ticonderoga to Gates and then to St. Clair, 204; accused of accepting 404 Index. a bribe, 219; issued a proclamation, 233; before Congress, 241-242; feeling against, 242; his house burned, 249, 299, 301; repaired Fort Stanwix, 258; named the fort, 258; met Burgoyne, 301; told Burgoyne to have no regret for burning the house, 301; Burgoyne's excuse, 301; biographical notice of, 241- 243- Schyler, see Schuyler. Scotland, 87, 104, 218, 344. Scot's Farm, 142. Scott, Capt. Alexander, lost in the ice, 181; biographi- cal notice of, 181. Scott, Lieut. Thomas, a mes- senger for Burgoyne, 36, 123; his Journal cited, 124; cruising off Isle la Motte, 143; passed through the enemy's fleet, 143; took to the woods, 143-144; com- manded the Thunderer, 152; biographical notice of, 122-124. Scythians, scalping among the, 121. Sea Fencibles, the, 151. Seaman, commanded the Revenge, 163. Second Battalion, 181, 287. Second Foot, 1 15. Second New Hampshire Regiment, the, 216, 282. Seringapatam, Lieut. Scott at the taking of, 124. Seventh Regiment, 100. Seventieth Foot, the, 1 14. Seventy-first Highlanders, the, 87. Seventy-fourth Foot, the, 351- Seventy-second Foot, the, 84, 351- Seventy-seventh Foot, the, 310. Shelburne, Life of William Earl of, see Fitzmaurice, Lord Edmond. Shelly, Surgeon, 220. Shirley, Governor William, formed a regiment, 2. Shooter's Hill, Blomfield's death at, 327. Shortt, W. T., his Journal of the Principal Occurrences During the Siege of Que- bec, cited, 86. Shrimpton, Captain John, wounded, 211, 346; bio- graphical notice of, 349- 350. Siege of Boston, the, see Frothingham, Hon. Rich- ard. Silver Bullet, the story of the, 33-34, 284. Silver Bullets said to have been thrown by Burgoyne, 219. Simcoe, Col. John Graves, accompanied Arnold on his Southern campaign, 246; commanded the Queen's Ranger Huzzars, 247; his Journal cited, 175. Simonds commanded The Providence, 163. Index. 405 Sioux, the, under de Langlade, 254-255. Sismondi, Jean Charles Leon- ard de, his Histoire des Franηais, cited, 135. "Sister Kitty," a soubriquet conferred on Catherine of Russia, 6. Sisters, the, missing, 91. Six Nations, the expedition against, Gen. Poor in, 282. Sixteenth Dragoons, the, Burgoyne's Light Horse, 115, 222, 223, 248, 305,332,346. Sixth Dragoons, the, 290. Sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, the, 126, 165. Sixtieth Foot, the, 155, 331. Sixty-fifth Foot, the, 195. Sixty-first Foot, the, 346. Sixty-fourth Foot, the, 196. Sixty-ninth Foot, the, 198. Sixty-second Foot, the, 36, 55, 196, 272, 273,200, 310, 329, 338, 339"340, 341, 342, 343. 344. 345, 346,349; the Historical Record of, 330, 344. Sixty-third Foot, the, 87. Skene, Capt. Phillip, served under Abercrombie, 217; named Skenesborough, 217; mentioned, 233. Skenesborough, Burgoyne at, 21, 22; baggage sent to, 205; Riedesel marched to- ward, 217; origin of the name, 217; Digby ordered to, 219-220; the army as- sembled at, 222; enemy driven from, 223; feu-de- joie at, 222, 225; long delay at, 226; doubt expressed concerning the expedience of bringing the army to, 227; the delay gave the enemy time to collect, 228; departure of the army, 233; supplies sent from Ticon- deroga, 266; in the posses- sion of the Americans, 284; Chθland killed at, 325; men- tioned, 222, 224, 228. Smith, Lieut. William P., wounded, 425; biographi- cal notice of, 228. Snakes at Skeensborough, 228. Somersetshire, England, iii, 112, 338. Sorel, M. de, 103. Sorel river, formerly called the River of the Iroquois, 103; Capt. Wilson captured at the, 126, II, 116, 120, 135, 145- South American coast, Capt. York drowned on the, 329. South Carolina, 195. Spain ceded West Florida to Great Britain, 149, 347; ceded Louisiana to Great Britain, 351; mentioned, 95,. US- Spanish West Indies, 333. Sparks, Jered, his Life of Washington, cited, 3, 51, 53, 54, 86, 108, 163, 166, 171,219. Specht, Johann Frederick, biographical notice of, 197- 199. Spencer, Cornet, 247. 406 Index. Spitfire, The, burnt, 162; commanded by Ulmer, 163. Spofford, A. R., vi, 58. Spruce used as an anticros- butic and for beer, 122, Stamford, Conn., the birth- place of Gen. Waterbury, 162; death of Waterbury at, 163. Stanly, Capt. John, wounded, 332; biographical notice of, 335- Stanwix, Gen. John, his name given to a fort, 257; served under Abercrombie, 257- 258. Stapleton, Captain Francis, killed, 341; biographical notice of, 347. Stark, Gen. John, destroyed Baum's command, 23; bio- graphical notice of, 23-24. Stark, Lieut., commanded the Maria, 152. State of the expedition from Canada, see Burgoyne, Lieut.-Gen. Sir John. Staten Island, 72. Stearns, Ezra S., his History of Rindge, cited, 216. Stedman, C, his History of the American War, cited, 206, 247. Steele, Lieutenant Thomas, wounded, 346; biographi- cal notice of, 350-351. Stevelby, Lieutenant Joseph, wounded, 348-349; bio- graphical notice of, 352. Stewart, see Stuart. Stillwater, battle of, Schuy- ler's outposts at the, 22; Wright killed at the, 245; Turnbull killed at the, 337; mentioned, 266. Stone, F. D., vi. Stone, Col. William L., mentioned, vi, 161; his articles in the Magazine of American History, cited, 112; his Campaign of Gen. John Burgoyne, cited, 31, 299; his edition of the Letters and Journals of the Baroness Riedesel, cited, 42, 43, 55, 88, III, 199, 242-243, 293, 297, 299, 300, 326-327, 340, 343, 345; his edition of the Memoirs, Letters and Jour- nals of Baron Riedesel, cited, 108, III, 119, 217, 250, 252; his expedition of Lieut.-Col. Barry St. Leger, cited, 237, 257. Stopford, Major, 128. Storey, Thomas, 334. Strangways, Captain Stephen Digby, wounded, 335; bio- graphical notice of, 338. Stuart, Lieutenant Archibald, killed, 336; biographical notice of, 341. Stuart, James, his Three Years in North America, cited, 87. Sugar Hill, see Sugar-loaf Hill. Sugar-loaf Hill, General Phillips on, 174; comman- ded Ticonderoga, 204, 205, Capt. Walker on, 207. Index. 407 Sullivan, Gen. John, unable to form a conjunction with Arnold, 10; fell back to Crown Point, 11; sent with reinforcements to Albany, 25; elated in finding himself in command before Quebec, 108-109; unsuccessful in recovering lost ground, 108- 109; evacuated the Isle aux Noix, 138; biographical notice of, 10. Sumner, commanded the Boston, 163. Surinam, Greene in the expedition against, 278. Surrey, England, 328. Sutherland, Col. Nicholas, a messenger from Burgoyne to Yates, 310, 311; bio- graphical notice of, 310-3 1 2. Sutton, England, granted to the Burgoyne family, 114. Sutton, Volunteer, wounded, 325; biographical notice of, 328-329. Swartwood, Capt. Abraham, his coat used in making a flag, 161. Sweden, 95. Swetman, see Swettenham. Swettenham, Captain George, wounded, 342; biographical notice of, 347. Sword-fish described, 89. Talavera, Lieut. Howarth at the battle of, 328. Taylor, Ensign George, killed, 336; biographical notice of, 341-342. Taylor, Sergeant Daniel, 34. Tenth Regiment, the, 282, 283. Tetton, the birthplace of Major Acland, 111. Thanet, the Earl of, supposed relative of Gen. Gates, 168. Thatcher, James, M. D., his Military Journal, cited, 219. Thevet, Andre, cited, 97. Third Foot Guards, the, 160. Third Light Dragoons, the, 332. Third New Hampshire Foot, the, 216. Thirteenth Dragoons, the, 115- Thirteenth Foot, the, 224. Thirtieth Foot, the, 166, 278. Thirty eighth Foot, the, 196. Thirty-first Foot, the, 114, 149. 188, 278; The Histor- ical Record of the, cited, 150. Thirty-fourth Foot, the, 123, 188, 196, 333, 351; The Historical Record of the, cited, 332, 333. Thirty-seventh Foot, the, 181. Thirty-sixth Foot, the, 114. Thirty-third Foot, the, iii, J95, 336, 351; The Histor- ical Record of the, cited, 336. Thomas, Gen. John, forced to retreat, 9, 108; biograph- ical notice of, 9; mentioned, 10. Thompson, General William, taken prisoner, 9; biograph- ical notice of, 107-108. 408 Index. Three Mile Point, 201. Three Years in North America, see Stuart, James. Thunderer, The, commanded by Lieut. Scott, 152. Ticonderoga, put into a condition of defense by the Americans, 12; Burgoyne to take a post within sight of, 15; dismayed, 18; Gen. St. Clair at, 19, 170; Burgoyne before, 19-20; the loss of, very bitter to the Americans, 20, 224, 241- 242; capture of, hailed with delight by George III and Lord Germaine, 20-21, 64, 225; to be garrisoned by troops from Carleton, 21; Burgoyne obliged to garrison it, 26-27; attacked by the Americans, 37; Bur- goyne's intended retreat to, 46, 245; garrisoned, 124; Indian name of, 126; de- scribed, 126-127, 213-214; probably visited by Cham- plain,. 126; Montcalm at, 127; called Carilton, 127; Abercrombie before, 127, 258; captured by Amherst, 127; by Ethan Allen, 127; by Haldeman, 127; Lord Howe killed at, 156, 241, 258; Waterbury at, 163; Heartley retired to,i65-i66; paroled prisoners taken to, 166, 219; Gates in com- mand at, 168; the force at, 169; the Americans im- patient for the approach of Carleton, 172; forced evac- uation, 174; comments on Carleton's not attempting to reduce it, 187; General Powell in command at, 196 -197; an attack repelled, 197; abandoned, 198; Fra- ser in possession of an emi- nence that commanded it, 202; assigned to Gates, 204, 218; commanded by Sugar-loaf Hill, 204-205; want of foresight in St. Clair, 204; baggage stored at, 226; flight of the enemy from, 227; Lord Howe and Gen. Schuyler at the attack of, 241; recruits from, 266; fear that the army should be obliged to return to, 277; expedition of the Ameri- cans against, 277; rein- forcements expected from, 280; report of its capture, 281; news of the attack received, 284-285; partial success of the Americans, 285; intercepted dispatches to Burgoyne from, 285; ex- press from, 286; retreat to, proposed, 292; mentioned, vii, 72, 116, 129, 130, 131, 132, 147, 163, 173, 176,206, 223, 228, 230, 242, 246, 258, 331, 332, 349. Ticonderago, see Ticonderoga. Tierra Laborador, see Labra- dor. Toboyne Township, Captain Adams a native of the, 137- Index. 409 Toovey, Col. John, commanded the Fifty-third Regiment of Foot, vi,. Tories, the, feellng against, 243-244; cause embarrass- ment among the Ameri- cans, 255. Toronto, 244, 306. Torture of prisoners, the, did not originate among the Indians, 121. Tower of London, the, Capt. Shrimpton in command of, 350. Townsend, Dr., 160. Traverse, A., explained, 305. Trois Rivieres, Carleton at, 84; Digby at, 106; described, 106; prisoners paroled at, 132; mentioned, 184. Trumbull, The, commanded by Wigglesworth, 163; es- caped, 162. Turnbull, Lieutenant George, killed, 334, 337,; biograph- ical notice of, 336-337. Twentieth Foot, the, 111,155, 196, 272, 332,333,334-335. 336; The Historical Record of the, cited, 333, 334. Twenty-eighth Foot, the, 256. Twenty-first Dragoons, the, 346. Twenty-first Foot, the, 197, 198,310,336,337,348; The Historical Record of the, cited, 312, 336, 349. Twenty-fourth Foot, the, 87, 122, 144, 211,224,337,338; The Historical Record of the, cited, 337, 338. 52 Twenty-ninth Foot, the, 129, 188,330,335,350,351; The Historical Record of the, cited, 330. Twenty-seventh Foot, the, 248. Two Voyages to New Eng- land, see Josselyn, John. Tyconderoga, see Ticonder- oga. Ulmer, Capt., commanded the Spitfire, 163. . United States, History of the, 111 Graham, the Rev. James. United States, New Travels in the, see De Warrville, J. P. Brisscot. United States, the, 63, 195, 261, 281, 283, 312, 354. Universal Magazine, The, cited, 140, 148. Valcour Island, 12. Valley Forge, Gen. Poor at, 282; mentioned, 60. Verchere, Madame de, the heroism of, 178-179. Vercheres, described, 178- 179; origin of the name, 178. Vermont, 194; The History of, see Hall, Hiland, LL. D. Vershere, see Vercheres. Villaret, Admiral, 148. Virginia, Burgoyne's captive army sent to, 62, 175; Am- herst governor of, 136; Arnold in, 175; Phillips in, 175; mentioned, 107, 270. Vischer, Col., letter from Gen. Wilkinson to, 281. 41O Index. Von Gall, Col. W. R., biographical notice of, 197-199. Vyner, Mr., 254, 303. Walker, Capt. Ellis, ordered to Sugar-loaf Hill, 207; biographical notice of, 207. Walpole, Horace, called Catherine of Russia "Sister Kitty," 6; idle story of his being the father of Gen. Gates, 168; god-father of Gates, 168-169; his Journal of the Reign of George HI, cited, 21, 171,239,314, 318-319, 320; his Last Journals, cited, 171. Walpole, Horatio, 168. Warbourg, Gen. Phillips at, 174. Warner, Col. Seth, captured Crown Point, 127. War of Independence, The History of the, see Botta, Carlo G. G. Washington county, the survey of, see Fitch, Asa. Washington, D. C, the National Library of, vi. Washington, Gen. George, addressed as " Mister," 3, 4, 15; his confidence in Gen. Thomas, 9; compared to Moses, 14; baffled Howe, 19; sent reinforcements to Albany, 25; delay of Gates in informing him of Bur- goyne's surrender, 50; his reply to Heath concerning the removal of the troops from Boston, 50-52; Lord Mahon's opinion of, 50-51; letter to Gates, 56-51; let- ters to Heath, 52, 108; letter to Congress, 54; letter from Gates, 57; letter to Reed, 63-64; puzzled at Howe's failure to co-operate with Burgoyne, 71-72; request for an exchange of prison- ers, 84-85; opposed send- ing Thompson to Virginia, 107; Gates an early friend of, 169; Gates envious of, 170; proclamation of, 192; remarks of, concerning the evacuation of Ticonderoga, 219; met Morgan at Cam- bridge, 270-271; consulted Morgan, 271; his eulogistic remarks upon Gen. Poor, 282; mentioned, 39, 60, 62, 216. Washington, The Life of George, see Living, Washington, and Sparks, Jered. Washington, The, commanded by Waterbury, 163; captured, 162, 173. Waterbury, Gen. David, J., taken prisoner, 162; commanded The Washington, 163; biographical notice of, 162; mentioned, 165, 166. Wayne, Col., 138. Wellington, the Duke of, Howarth served under, 328. Wemys, see Weymis. West India fleet, the, 148. Index. 411 West Indies, the, Montgom- ery in, 99; Gates in, 169; Powell in, 196; Harris in, 331; Lind in, 333; Gordon in, 351. Westminster Abbey, Bur- goyne buried in, 191. Westminster Abbey Register, cited, 1 16. Westminster, England, Bur- goyne educated at, 115. Weston, Mass., Col. Marshall died at, 283. West Point, 60. Westroop, Lieut. Richard, killed at Fort Anne, 235, 348; biographical notice of, 234- Weymis, Captain Francis, wounded, 332; biographical notice of, 333-334- Whale and sword fish, fight between a, 89. Whisky Insurrection, the, 271. Whitcomb, Lieut. Benjamin, a scout, shot Gen. Jordon, 128-13 1; seized a British quartermaster, 1 29-1 31; his account of the affair, 129; Anburey's account of it, 130; biographical notice of, 1 3 1- 1 34; sent to reconnoiter, 145. Whitehall, 14, 258. Whitmore, Lieut.-General, in Florida, 347. Whitmore, Rachel, married Ebenezer Francis, 211. Wigglesworth commanded the Trumbull, 163. Wight, Captain, killed, 347; mentioned, 266, 290. Wilkes, John, or Lord Germaine, 239. Wilkinson, Gen. James, adju- tant for Yates, 38, 306, 310; sent by Yates to Congress with the news of Burgoyne's surrender, 50; defended Gates, 50; saved the life of Maj. Acland, 112; a letter of his pub- lished, 280-281; met Major Kingston, 306; his Mem- oirs of My Own Times, cited, 35, 38, 42, 44-45, 55, 112, 130, 138, 160, 171, 225, 237, 274, 275, 299, 306, 312, 342-343-. Williams, Major Griffith, objected to the removal of his artillery, 286; taken prisoner, 326; biographical notice of, 286-287. Wilson, D., his Life of Jane McCrea, cited, 235-237. Wilson, Captain James Arm- strong, taken prisoner, 126; biographical notice of, 126; mentioned, 137. Wilson, Jean, mother of Capt. James, 126. Wilson, Thomas, father of Capt. James, 126. Windsor Castle, Phillips lieu- tenant governor of, 174. Winnebagoes, The, under de Langlade, 254-255. Winter Hill, Boston, the quar- ters of the German troops at, 49-50- 412 Index. Wisconsin Historical Society, The Collections of the, cited, 255. Wolfe, General James, L'Es- trange with, 182; St. Clair with, 218; St. Leger with, 257; mentioned, 84, 155. Wolterton, the Baron of, 168. Wolves devour the dead, 246. Woodcock, The, 83. Woolwich Royal Military Academy, Phillips educated at the, 174; Carter at, 205; Walker at, 207; Williams in command at, 287; Jones at, 324; Blomfield at, 325; Smith at, 328; York at, 329. Wright, Louis James, killed, 327; biographical notice of, 329- Wright, Captain John, biographical notice of, 245. Wyandot Panther, The, 235, 236. Wyoming, the massacre of, 166. Yale College, 193. York, Lieut. John H,, taken prisoner, 326; biographical notice of, 329. York, Pa., Hartley's death at, 166. York, the Duke of. Fort George named for, 228. Yorktown, Cornwallis' surrender at, 39; St. Clair at the siege of, 219. Young, Ensign Henry, killed, 336; biographical notice of, 346. Zebra, The, Longcraft commander of, 151. I am indebted to Mr. Edward Denham, of New Bedford, an expert in all matters relating to indexing, for his valuable services in compiling this index.