14th Century Illustrations of Costume from

Julius Caesar and Attendants from the Nine Heroes Tapestries
c. 1385 or 14001410



A detail of the Bidower



Full large image of Julius Caesar and Attendants from the Nine Heroes Tapestries

Date: ca. 14001410
Culture: South Netherlandish
Medium: Wool warp, wool wefts
Dimensions: Overall: 165 1/2 x 91 in. (420.4 x 231.1 cm)
Classification: Textiles-Tapestries
Credit Line: Gift of John D. Rockefeller Jr., 1947
Accession Number: 47.101.3
Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York



The Nine Heroes Tapestries

By:

Sarah J. Albertini & Danielle M. Pastor
Upon entering the Nine Heroes Tapestry Room at the Cloisters, one immediately notices its positioning within the museum. To the north of the room are two chapels: both in Gothic style, one in an earlier style than the other. This is a symbolic link to the six religious heroes represented in the tapestries -three Hebrew, three Christian. To the Heroes Tapestry are the famed Unicorn tapestries, highlighting the three pagan heroes.

The Nine Heroes Tapestries, representing the Hebrew heroes: Joshua, David, Judas Maccabeus, the Christian heroes: Charlemagne, Arthur, and Godfrey of Boullion, and the pagan heroes: Hector, Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar, are thought to be made around 1385 by Nicolas Bataille. It is not positive that Bataille is the artist; however, another set of tapestries, the Apocalypse Tapestries in Angers, France, made by Bataille shares the same characteristics as the Nine Heroes.

The inspiration for the Nine Heroes Tapestries came from a poem written by Jacques de Longuyon in 1310. The poem's protagonist, Porus, is described as being more courageous than the nine great heroes of history. Eventually, the representation of these men soon appeared everywhere as the poem's story grew in popularity.

One contrary image stands out in the tapestries. No matter what era the hero represents, he is dressed in clothing reminiscent of the fourteenth century. This was a common artistic style used during the time that the tapestries were created.

Although the original owner of the tapestries is unknown, there are clues to his identity in the tapestries themselves. Ten of the fourteen banners flying from the turrets in the Hebrew Heroes tapestry display the golden fleur-de-lis of France on an azure ground within a red indentured border. Since this is the coat of arms of Jean, Duke of Berry, third son of King John II of France, it is assumed that these tapestries once belonged to him.

Source: Fordham University



A bidower in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 1 by Ian Heath, based on the Nine Heroes Tapestries
Other 14th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers