Illustration from the
Navarre Picture Bible
Pamplona, Spain, 1197AD

Although the stories portrayed in the illustrations are ancient, the figures wear 12th century Navarrese costume.

Holofernes and his army riding to Bethulia


Holopherne et son armée chevauchant vers Béthulie
Holofernes and his army riding to Bethulia
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The Campaign against Bethulia

7 The next day Holofernes ordered his whole army, and all the allies who had joined him, to break camp and move against Bethulia, and to seize the passes up into the hill country and make war on the Israelites. So all their warriors marched off that day; their fighting forces numbered one hundred seventy thousand infantry and twelve thousand cavalry, not counting the baggage and the foot soldiers handling it, a very great multitude. They encamped in the valley near Bethulia, beside the spring, and they spread out in breadth over Dothan as far as Balbaim and in length from Bethulia to Cyamon, which faces Esdraelon.

When the Israelites saw their vast numbers, they were greatly terrified and said to one another, “They will now strip clean the whole land; neither the high mountains nor the valleys nor the hills will bear their weight.” Yet they all seized their weapons, and when they had kindled fires on their towers, they remained on guard all that night.

On the second day Holofernes led out all his cavalry in full view of the Israelites in Bethulia. He reconnoitered the approaches to their town, and visited the springs that supplied their water; he seized them and set guards of soldiers over them, and then returned to his army.
(Judith 7:1-7)

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'Fighting around Bethulia' in the Roda Bible, c.1050-1100AD